Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir


  Richard III did not long enjoy his crown. His son died in 1484, and his wife in 1485. His heir was his sister’s son, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln. Yet England was never destined to have a King John II. For although the great families who were descended from Edward III and had a strong claim to the throne of England had either died out or been barred from the succession by Act of Attainder, there yet remained in exile in France a scion of the Beauforts, who were the issue of John of Gaunt by his mistress (and later wife) Katherine Swynford. After their parents’ marriage in 1396, the Beauforts were declared legitimate by a Statute of Richard II, but Henry IV added an amendment barring them from the throne, which was of dubious legality. This minor technicality did not, however, deter the ‘unknown Welshman’ called Henry Tudor, who in 1485 invaded England with a foreign army, defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth, and had himself crowned on the battlefield as King Henry VII with the circlet that had fallen from the head of the last Plantagenet King of England and rolled under a hawthorn bush near to where Richard fell, hacked to death in the midst of the fray.

  Thus was the Tudor dynasty founded, of whom we shall hear more in the next chapter. Henry VII united the rival Houses of York and Lancaster by marrying Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV. The Wars of the Roses ended in 1487 with the Battle of Stoke, when John, Earl of Lincoln, Richard III’s nephew and heir, perished. But the tragedy of the House of York would be drawn out for a further eighty years, during which time its surviving members were either brutally eliminated or neutralised by the usurping, ever-suspicious Tudors.

  Henry IV

  * * *

  FATHER: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster ( see here, under Edward III).

  MOTHER: Blanche of Lancaster ( see here, under Edward III).

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Edward III)

  HENRY IV

  He was born probably on 3 April, or – less probably – on 30 May, 1367, at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincs. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 23 April, 1377, and styled Earl of Derby from 16 July, 1377. He was created Earl of Northampton and (probably) Earl of Hereford in right of his wife on 22 December, 1384. He was created Duke of Hereford on 29 September, 1397, and succeeded his father as Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and Earl of Lincoln on 3 February, 1399. He usurped the throne of England upon the abdication of Richard II on 30 September, 1399, and was crowned on 13 October, 1399, at Westminster Abbey.

  Henry IV married firstly, between 20 July, 1380, and 10 February, 1381, either at Rochford, Essex, or at Arundel Castle, Sussex:

  Mary

  She was the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton, by Joan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, a descendant of Henry III. Her sister Eleanor was married to Henry IV’s uncle, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester ( see here, under Edward III). Mary was born around 1369/70. She was made a Lady of the Garter in 1388. She died on 4 June, 1394, at Peterborough Castle, in childbirth, and was buried in St Mary’s Church, Leicester. Her remains were later removed to Trinity Hospital, Leicester.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Edward

  He was born in April, 1382, and died aged 4 days. He was perhaps buried in Monmouth Castle Chapel.

  2 Henry V ( see here).

  3 Thomas

  He was born on 29 September, 1388, either at Kenilworth Castle, Co. Warwick, or in London. He was made a Knight of the Bath on 12 October, 1399, when the Order was founded by his father, and a Knight of the Garter in c.1400. He was created Duke of Clarence and Earl of Aumale on 9 July, 1412. He was killed on 22 March, 1421, at the Battle of Baugé, France, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

  Thomas had the following illegitimate issue:

  1 John de Clarence; he was a knight, and was sometimes known as the Bastard of Clarence.

  Thomas married, after 10 November, 1411 (date of dispensation) (although no evidence exists as to where):

  Margaret

  She was the daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, son of Joan, Princess of Wales ( see here, under Edward III), by Alice, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, a descendant of Henry III. Margaret was born in c.1381/5. She married firstly John Beaufort, Marquess of Somerset, son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster ( see here, under Edward III), and had issue. She was made a Lady of the Garter in 1399. She died on 30/31 December, 1439, at St Saviour’s Abbey, Bermondsey, London, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, Kent.

  4 John

  He was born on 20 June, 1389. He was made a Knight of the Bath on 11 October, 1399, when the Order was founded by his father, and a Knight of the Garter in c.1400. He was created Earl of Kendal and Duke of Bedford on 16 May, 1414, and Earl of Richmond on 24 November, 1414. He died on the night of 14/15 September, 1435, at his house called ‘Joyeux Repos’ at Rouen, Normandy, and was buried in Rouen Cathedral, Normandy.

  John had the following illegitimate issue:

  1 Richard.

  2 Mary (d. after 1458); she married Peter of Montferrat.

  John married firstly by proxy on 13 or 17 April, 1423, at Montbar, France, and in person on 14 June, 1423, at Troyes Cathedral, France:

  Anne

  She was the daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, by Margaret, daughter of Albert of Bavaria, Count of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland, and she was born around 1404/5 at Arras, Burgundy, France. Anne died on 14 November, 1432, at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, Paris, in childbirth, and was buried in the Church of the Celestines, Paris. Her remains were later removed to the Chartreuse de Champnol, Dijon, Burgundy, France.

  Issue of marriage:

  (i) Unnamed child

  It was born in November, 1432, in Paris, and died shortly after its birth.

  John married secondly, on 20 or 22 April, 1433, at the Bishop’s Palace, Thérouanne, France:

  Jacquetta

  She was the daughter of Peter of Luxembourg, Count of St Pol, by Margaret, daughter of Francis del Balso or Baux, Duke of Andria, and she was born in 1416 (?). After the death of Bedford, she married secondly Richard Woodville or Wydville, 1st Earl Rivers (1405?–executed 1469), between 16 September, 1435, and 23 March, 1436, and had issue:

  1 Elizabeth; she married Edward IV ( see here).

  2 Anne (1438?–1489); she married firstly William, Viscount Bourchier (killed 1471 or d.1483?), son of Isabella Plantagenet ( see here, under Edward III) and cousin of Edward IV, and had issue. She married secondly Sir Edward Wingfield, and thirdly George Grey, Earl of Kent (d.1503).

  3 Margaret (1439?–1490/1); she married Thomas Maltravers, Earl of Arundel (1450?–1524).

  4 Anthony, 2nd Earl Rivers (1440/2?–executed 1483); he married firstly Elizabeth (1436?–1473), daughter of Thomas, Baron Scales of Neucelles. He married secondly Mary, daughter of Sir Henry FitzLewes. Anthony had illegitimate issue.

  5 Mary (1443?–by 1481); she married William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Huntingdon (d.1491), and had issue.

  6 Jacquetta (1444/5?–1509); she married John le Strange, Baron Strange of Knockin (d.1479), and had issue.

  7 John (1445–executed 1469); he married Katherine (d. after 1483), daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, by Joan Beaufort ( see here, under Edward III).

  8 Lionel, Bishop of Salisbury (1446?–1484).

  9 Edward (killed 1488).

  10 Richard, 3rd Earl Rivers (d.1491).

  11 Thomas; he married Anne Holland.

  12 John (d. young).

  13 Lewis (d. young).

  14 Katherine, Duchess of Buckingham and Bedford ( see here, under Henry V).

  15 Martha; she married Sir John Bromley.

  16 Eleanor or Joan; she married Anthony Grey, Baron de Ruthin (d.1480), and had issue.

  Jacquetta was made a Lady of the Garter in 1435. She died on 30 May, 1472.

  5 Humphrey

  He was born around August/September, or on 3 October, 1390. He was made a Knight of the Garter in c.1400, and created Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke on 16 May, 1414.
In March, 1423, he assumed the style Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault in right of his first wife. He was created Count of Flanders on 30 July, 1436. He died, or was perhaps murdered, on 23 February, 1447, at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, and was buried in St Albans Abbey, Herts.

  Humphrey had the following illegitimate issue:

  1 Arthur (d.1447).

  2 Antigone; she married firstly Henry Grey, Lord of Powys and Count of Tancarville in Normandy (1419?–1450), and had issue. She married secondly John d’Amancier.

  Humphrey married firstly, before 7 March (perhaps in February?), 1422/3, at Hadleigh, Essex (?):

  Jacqueline

  She was the daughter of William IV, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, by Margaret, daughter of Philip the Hardy, Duke of Burgundy, and she was born on 25 July, 1401, at The Hague, Holland. She married firstly John of Viennois, Dauphin of France (1398–1417), in July, 1406 at Compiégne, France, and again in 1415 at The Hague, Holland. She succeeded her father as Duchess of Bavaria and Countess of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault in 1417. She married secondly John IV, Duke of Brabant (1400/3–1426), on 10 March, 1418. This marriage was annulled by the Anti-Pope, Benedict XIII, in 1421/2. She was made a Lady of the Garter in 1423. Her marriage to Humphrey was annulled on 9 July, 1428, by Papal Decree, which also pronounced as valid her marriage to Brabant. She married fourthly Francis or Floris van Borselen, Count of Ostrevant (d.1470), in July, 1432, at Ostende, Flanders. She was dispossessed by the Duke of Burgundy of all her territories save Ostrevant in 1433. She underwent a second marriage ceremony with her fourth husband in July, 1434, at Martensdijk Castle, Holland. Jacqueline died on 8/9 October, 1436, either at Leyden, or at Teilingen, Holland, and was buried at The Hague.

  Issue of marriage:

  (i) Stillborn child

  It was born in 1424.

  Humphrey married secondly, in 1428 (?) (before 1431) (although no record exists as to where):

  Eleanor

  She was the daughter of Sir Reginald Cobham of Sterborough, Kent, by Eleanor, daughter of Sir Thomas Culpeper of Rayal. She was perhaps born at Sterborough Castle, Kent. She became Humphrey’s mistress some time before their marriage, and may have borne him 2 bastard children, possibly those listed above, but no firm details are recorded, and the children, if they existed, may have died young before the marriage took place. Eleanor was made a Lady of the Garter in 1432. In 1441, she was convicted of practising witchcraft upon Henry VI, and was imprisoned for life. She died in either 1446 or 1457 in prison at Peel Castle, Isle of Man, where she is said to have been buried.

  6 Blanche

  She was born in the spring of 1392 at Peterborough Castle. She married Louis ‘Barbatus’, Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (d.1436) on 6 July, 1402, at Cologne Cathedral, Germany, and had issue:

  1 Stillborn child (1407).

  2 Rupert (1409–1426).

  Blanche was made a Lady of the Garter in 1408. She died on 22 May, 1409, at Neustadt, Alsace, in childbirth, and was buried in the Church of St Mary, Neustadt, Alsace.

  7 Philippa

  She was born on or just before 4 June (not July, as is sometimes stated – her mother died giving birth to her in June), 1394, at Peterborough Castle. She married Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden (Eric XIII), Denmark (Eric VII), and Norway (Eric III) (1382–1459), on 26 October, 1406, at Lund, Sweden, and had issue:

  1 Stillborn child (1429).

  Philippa was crowned Queen Consort of Sweden, Denmark and Norway on 1 November, 1406, at Lund, Sweden. She was made a Lady of the Garter in 1408. She died on 5 January, 1430, in the convent of Waldstena, Lingkoping, Sweden, where she was buried.

  Henry IV is also said to have had the following illegitimate issue, although there is no contemporary evidence for this:

  1 Edmund Labourde (d. young in 1401).

  Henry IV married secondly, by proxy on 3 April, 1402, at Eltham

  Palace, Kent, and in person on 7 February, 1403, at Winchester Cathedral:

  Joan

  She was the daughter of Charles II, King of Navarre, by Joan, daughter of John II, King of France, and she was born in c.1370. She married firstly John de Montfort IV, Duke of Brittany (1339–1399) (who had previously been married to Mary, daughter of Edward III), either on 25 August, 1386, at Pampelina, Navarre, or on 11 September, 1386, at Saillé, Navarre, and had issue:

  1 Joan (1387–1388).

  2 Daughter (name not known) (b.&d.1388).

  3 Peter, who took the name and style John V, Duke of Brittany (1389–1422); he married Joan (1391–1433), daughter of Charles VI, King of France, and sister to the wives of Richard II and Henry V, and had issue.

  4 Mary (1391–1446); she married John I, Duke of Alençon (d.1415).

  5 Arthur III, Duke of Brittany (1393–1458); he married firstly Margaret (d.1441), daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, and secondly Joan d’Albret, and thirdly Katherine of Luxembourg.

  6 Giles, Lord of Chantocé (1394–1412).

  7 Richard, Count of Éstampes (1395–1438); he married Margaret (d.1466), daughter of Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans, and had issue.

  8 Blanche (c.1396–c.1418); she married John or Lomagne, Count of Armagnac (d. after 1448).

  9 Margaret (1397–1428); she married Alan, Viscount de Rohan.

  Joan was crowned Queen Consort on 25/26 February, 1403, at Westminster Abbey. She was made a Lady of the Garter in 1405. She died on 2, 9 or 10 July, 1437, at the Dower House known as Pirgo, on the royal manor of Havering-atte-Bower, Essex, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, Kent. There was no issue of her marriage to Henry IV.

  HENRY IV

  He died on 20 March, 1413, in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey, of a disease resembling leprosy, and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.

  He was succeeded by his son Henry.

  Henry V

  * * *

  FATHER: Henry IV ( see here).

  MOTHER: Mary de Bohun ( see here, under Henry IV).

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Henry IV).

  HENRY V

  He was born probably on 9 August or 16 September, 1387, or – less probably – in August, 1386, at Monmouth Castle. He was created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester, and Prince of Aquitaine on 15 October, 1399, and invested with these honours the same day. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1399. He was created Duke of Aquitaine on 23 October or 10 November, 1399, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November, 1399. He succeeded his father as King of England on 21 March, 1413, and was crowned on 9 April, 1413, in Westminster Abbey. He was designated heir to the throne of France on 21 May, 1420, but did not live to enjoy his inheritance.

  Henry V married, on 2 June, 1420, at Troyes Cathedral, France:

  Katherine

  She was the daughter of Charles VI, King of France, by Isabella, daughter of Stephen II, Duke of Ingolstadt-Bavaria. Her sister Isabella had been married to Richard II. Katherine was born on 27 October, 1401, at the Hôtel de St Pol, Paris. She was crowned in Westminster Abbey on 23/24 February, 1421. After the death of Henry V, she either secretly married, or formed a liaison with, a gentleman of her household, Owain ap Maredudd ap Tewdwr (Owen Tudor), son of Maredudd (Meredith) ap Tewdwr by his wife Margaret. This marriage, if it took place at all, was solemnised between 1425 and 1428. Owen Tudor was born in c.1400 at Plas Penmynydd, Wales, and he was executed on 3 February, 1461, by the Yorkists at Hereford. He was buried in Grey Friar’s Church, Hereford. His union with Katherine produced issue as follows, and details are given in full as they are relevant to the succession:

  (a) Owen or Thomas or Edward

  He was born on 6 November, 1429, at the Palace of Westminster, and is perhaps to be identified with Edward Bridgewater, a monk at Westminster Abbey from 1468/9 to 1471/2. He died in 1502 at Westminster, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  (b) Edmund ( see here, under Henry VII).

  (c) Jaspar

  He was born in c.1431 at Hatfield, Herts. He w
as created Earl of Pembroke probably on 23 November, 1452, certainly before 30 January, 1453. He was made a Knight of the Garter before 23 April, 1459. He was attainted as a traitor by Act of Parliament on 4 November, 1461, and forfeited all his honours, but was styled Earl of Pembroke from October, 1470, until May, 1471, during the readeption of Henry VI. He was created Duke of Bedford on 27 October, 1485, and formally restored to all his honours on 12 December, 1485. He died on 21 or 26 December, 1495, and was buried in Keynsham Abbey, Somerset.

 
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