Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir

1 Charles (Don Carlos) (1545–1568).

  Philip was designated King of Naples, Jerusalem and Savoy in preparation for his marriage to Mary I (to give him equal rank), and was made a Knight of the Garter on 24 April, 1554. He succeeded his father as King of Spain on 16 January, 1556. After Mary’s death, he married thirdly Elizabeth (1545–1568), daughter of Henry II, King of France, in 1559 at Toledo, Spain, and had issue:

  1 Unnamed daughter (b.1564).

  2 Unnamed daughter (b.1564).

  3 Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566–1633); she married Albert, Archduke of Austria (1559–1621).

  4 Katherine Michela (1567–1597); she married Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (1562–1630).

  5 Unnamed daughter (b.&d.1568).

  Philip married fourthly Anne (1549–1580), daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1570 at Segovia, Spain, and had issue:

  1 Ferdinand (1571–1578).

  2 Edward (1575–1582).

  3 Philip III, King of Spain (1578–1621); he married Marianna (1584–1611), daughter of Charles, Archduke of Austria, and had issue.

  4 Mary.

  Philip became King of Portugal in 1580. He died on 13 September, 1598, at the Palace of the Escorial, Madrid, Spain, where he is buried in the mausoleum. There was no issue of his marriage to Mary I.

  MARY I

  She died on 17 November, 1558, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  She was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth.

  Elizabeth I

  * * *

  FATHER: Henry VIII ( see here).

  MOTHER: Anne Boleyn ( see here, under Henry VIII).

  SIBLINGS: Elizabeth I did not have any full siblings.

  ELIZABETH I

  She was born on 7 September, 1533, at Greenwich Palace, Kent. She succeeded her half-sister Mary I as Queen of England on 17 November, 1558, and was crowned on 15 January, 1559, at Westminster Abbey.

  ELIZABETH I

  She died unmarried and childless, and probably a virgin, on 24 March, 1603, at Richmond Palace, Surrey, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  She was succeeded by her third cousin, James VI of Scotland.

  Elizabeth I was the last Tudor monarch.

  CHAPTER SIX

  The Kings and Queens of Scotland from the 9th century to 1603

  Before proceeding chronologically to the royal House of Stuart, it is time to retrace our steps through history to the 9th century, when the kingdom of Scotland was first established. Prior to this date, details of the early rulers of Scotland are obscure; the Scottish monarchy is said to have been founded by Alpin, founder of the House of MacAlpin or MacAlpine, which provided Scotland with kings until 1034, when the succession passed to the House of Dunkeld via the marriage of Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II. The House of Dunkeld held sovereignty until 1290, when Queen Margaret, ‘the Maid of Norway’, perished at sea. Her death led to a great contest for the throne, with thirteen ‘competitors’ all contending for the crown. Edward I of England was asked to arbitrate, and he chose John Balliol, a lightweight whom he could easily manipulate to England’s advantage. The Scots naturally resented Edward’s interference in their government, and Balliol was obliged to abdicate in 1296. There followed the Second Interregnum, when Scotland was without a King from 1296 until 1306. Edward I was making strenuous efforts to bring Scotland under English rule during this period, until the emergence of Robert le Brus (or ‘the Bruce’), who declared himself King of Scotland in defiance of Edward in 1306, and who was destined to be one of the finest of Scotland’s rulers. Bruce’s dynasty did not long survive him; when his son died in 1371, the throne passed to Bruce’s grandson Robert II, son of Marjorie Bruce by Walter the Steward, who gave his name to the House of Stewart.

  The Stewarts ruled Scotland for more than two centuries, and Great Britain for another century, yet their hold on the throne was often a tenuous one. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, each Scottish monarch succeeded to the throne whilst still a child or a minor, and the country was subjected to continuous faction fights amongst power-hungry nobles. That the dynasty survived at all was nothing short of a miracle. Even the abdication of Queen Mary in 1567 did not ruin it, for her son James VI was guided by the magnates from his infancy along the Calvinist path they had marked out for him, and Elizabeth of England, of course, took care of the displaced Mary by first imprisoning and then executing her. Thus it was that the Stewarts – or Stuarts, as they had become when Mary had married into the French royal house – came to inherit also the throne of England. For Mary’s grandfather, James IV, had married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, and when Queen Elizabeth died without heirs in 1603, James VI of Scotland, the great-grandson of Margaret Tudor, was the English Queen’s nearest surviving relative.

  The succession of the earliest monarchs of Scotland is often confusing, as until Norman influence from England led to the adoption of succession by primogeniture in the late 11th century, the Scots favoured the ancient system of tanistry, whereby the crown passed back and forth from one branch of the family to the other. This system evolved in a time when life expectancy was short, society was violent, and a ruler might well die while his son was an infant: it ensured that the fittest, maturest male would inherit the throne. And until the reign of Malcolm II in the early 11th century, the kingdom of Scotland was shifting its borders all the time, incorporating earlier, smaller kingdoms, or being subdivided between rival rulers. Malcolm II could therefore be said to be the first monarch of modern Scotland. Yet our chapter begins two hundred years before his time, with Alpin, founder of the Scottish monarchy and its first dynasty.

  PART ONE

  The House of MacAlpine

  King Alpin

  * * *

  FATHER: Eochaid IV, King ‘of Scotland’.

  MOTHER: She was the sister and heiress of Constantine, King of the Picts.

  SIBLINGS: Alpin is not known to have had any siblings.

  KING ALPIN

  He succeeded his father as a King in Scotland, and became also King of Kintyre in March/August, 834, thus establishing his power over a wide area. There is no record of his coronation.

  King Alpin married a Scottish Princess (whose name is not known) and had issue:

  1 Kenneth I ( see here).

  2 Donald I ( see here).

  KING ALPIN

  He died on 20 July or in August, 834; he was killed whilst fighting the Picts in Galloway. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his son Kenneth.

  Kenneth I

  * * *

  FATHER: King Alpin ( see here).

  MOTHER: a Scottish Princess.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here), under King Alpin).

  KENNETH I

  He succeeded his father as King of Galloway and other parts of Scotland on 20 July or in August, 834, and became King of the area known as Dalriada in 841. In 843/4, he became King of the Picts, thus uniting the old Gaelic kingdoms of Alba for the first time, and by 846 he was firmly established as King of Scotland. There is no record of his coronation.

  Kenneth I married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 Constantine I ( see here).

  2 King Aedh ( see here).

  3 Daughter (name not known).

  She married Run Macarthagail, King of Strathclyde, and had issue:

  1 King Eochaid ( see here).

  4 Daughter (name not known).

  She married Olaf the White, King of Dublin.

  5 Daughter (name not known).

  She married Aedh Finnliath, King of Ireland.

  KENNETH I

  He died in 859 at Forteviot, Perthshire, and was buried on the Isle of lona.

  He was succeeded by his brother Donald.

  Donald I

  * * *

  FATHER: King Alpin ( see here).

  MOTHER: a Scottish Princess.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under King Alpin).

  DONALD I


  He succeeded Kenneth I in 859 as King of Scotland. There is no record of his coronation.

  He was either killed in 863 in a battle at Scone, Perthshire, or died that year in his palace at Kinn Belachoir. He died unmarried and childless. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his nephew Constantine.

  Constantine I

  * * *

  FATHER: Kenneth I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Kenneth I).

  CONSTANTINE I

  He succeeded Donald I as King of Scotland in 863. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 Donald II ( see here).

  CONSTANTINE I

  He was killed in 877 in a battle against the Danes at Inverdorat, the Black Cove, Angus. He was buried on the Isle of Iona.

  He was succeeded by his brother Aedh.

  King Aedh

  * * *

  FATHER: Kenneth I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Kenneth I).

  KING AEDH

  He succeeded Constantine I as King of Scotland in 877. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 Constantine II ( see here).

  2 Donald

  He became King of Strathclyde in 908.

  KING AEDH

  He was killed in 878 at Strathallan, and was perhaps buried at Maiden Stone, Aberdeenshire.

  He was succeeded by his nephew Eochaid.

  King Eochaid

  * * *

  FATHER: Run Macarthagail, King of Strathclyde.

  MOTHER: A daughter of Kenneth I.

  SIBLINGS: Eochaid is not known to have had any siblings.

  KING EOCHAID

  He succeeded his father as King of Strathclyde before succeeding his uncle King Aedh as King of Scotland in 878. There is no record of his coronation.

  King Eochaid was deposed in 889, and perhaps died unmarried and childless the same year. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his cousin Donald.

  Donald II

  * * *

  FATHER: Constantine I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: Donald II did not have any siblings.

  DONALD II

  He succeeded his cousin Eochaid as King of Scotland in 889. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 Malcolm I ( see here).

  DONALD II

  He was killed in 900 at Dun-fother, and was buried on the Isle of Iona.

  He was succeeded by his cousin Constantine.

  Constantine II

  * * *

  FATHER: King Aedh ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under King Aedh).

  CONSTANTINE II

  He succeeded Donald II as King of Scotland in 900. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 King Indulf ( see here).

  2 Cellach

  He was killed in 937 at the Battle of Brunanburgh.

  3 Daughter (name not known).

  She married Olaf Cuaran, King of Northumbria (d.981), in 937, and had issue:

  1 Gluniarainn, King of Dublin (d.989).

  2 Sihtric, King of Dublin (d.1042); he married and had issue.

  3 Reginald (killed 980); he married and had issue.

  CONSTANTINE II

  He abdicated in 942/3, and became a monk at the monastery of St Andrews, Fife, where he later became Abbot. He died at St Andrews in 952, and was probably buried there.

  He was succeeded by his second cousin Malcolm.

  Malcolm I

  * * *

  FATHER: Donald II ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: Malcolm I did not have any siblings.

  MALCOLM I

  He succeeded Constantine II as King of Scotland in 942/3. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 King Duff ( see here).

  2 Kenneth II ( see here).

  Malcolm I is also said to have had the following illegitimate issue:

  1 Kenneth (?).

  MALCOLM I

  He was killed in 954 by the men of Moray, and was buried on the Isle of Iona.

  He was succeeded by his second cousin Indulf.

  King Indulf

  * * *

  FATHER: Constantine II ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Constantine II).

  KING INDULF

  He succeeded Malcolm I as King of Scotland in 954. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 King Colin ( see here).

  2 Eochaid

  He was killed in 971 by the King of Strathclyde.

  3 Olaf

  He was killed in c.977 by Kenneth II.

  KING INDULF

  He abdicated in 962 and became a monk. He was killed the same year by Viking invaders at the Battle of the Bauds at the Muir of Findochty, Banffshire. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his third cousin Duff.

  King Duff

  * * *

  FATHER: Malcolm I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Malcolm I).

  KING DUFF

  He succeeded Indulf as King of Scotland in 962. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 Kenneth III ( see here).

  2 Malcolm

  Styled Prince of Cumbria (a title borne in the early middle ages by the sons of the Kings of Scotland) in his youth, he became King of Strathclyde in 973, and died in 990/1.

  KING DUFF

  He was killed in 967 at Forres by the men of Moray. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his third cousin Colin.

  King Colin

  * * *

  FATHER: King Indulf ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under King Indulf).

  KING COLIN

  Also called Cuilean, he succeeded Duff as King of Scotland in 967. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists, and had issue:

  1 Constantine III ( see here).

  2 Malcolm

  He was alive in 1002. Nothing more is known of him.

  KING COLIN

  He was killed in 971 by Riderch of Strathclyde. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his third cousin Kenneth.

  Kenneth II

  * * *

  FATHER: Malcolm I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Malcolm I).

  KENNETH II

  He succeeded Colin as King of Scotland in 971. There is no record of his coronation.

  He is said to have married a Princess of Leinster (whose name is not known), and had issue:

  1 Malcolm II ( see here).

  2 Dungal

  He was killed in 999 by his cousin Gillacomgain, son of Kenneth III.

  3 Donada

  She is also described as the daughter of Malcolm II. She married firstly (?) Finlay (Findlaech) MacRory, Mormaer of Moray (d.c.1004/5), and had issue:

  (i) King Macbeth ( see here).

  Donada married secondly Sigurd II Digri, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness (killed 1014), in c.1005/8, and had issue:

  1 Thorfinn, Jarl of Orkney and Caithness (c.1009–c.1056/65?); he married Ingibiorg of Halland, afterwards the wife of Malcolm III, and had
issue.

  KENNETH II

  He died (perhaps murdered on behalf of his successor) in 995 at Finella’s Castle, probably at Fettercairn, and was buried on the Isle of Iona.

  He was succeeded by his fourth cousin Constantine.

  Constantine III

  * * *

  FATHER: King Colin ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under King Colin).

  CONSTANTINE III

  He succeeded Kenneth II as King of Scotland in 995. There is no record of his coronation.

  He married a lady about whom no information exists. There was no issue of the marriage.

  CONSTANTINE III

  He was killed in 997 at Rathinveramon. His place of burial is not recorded.

  He was succeeded by his fourth cousin Kenneth.

  Kenneth III

  * * *

  FATHER: King Duff ( see here).

  MOTHER: Unknown.

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under King Duff).

  KENNETH III

 
Previous Page Next Page
Should you have any enquiry, please contact us via [email protected]