Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir


  9 Henrietta Anne

  Known as ‘Minette’, she was born on 16 June, 1644, at Bedford House, Exeter, Devon. She married Philip of Bourbon, Duke of Orléans (1640–1701), on 21 (O.S.) or 31 (N.S.) March, 1661, at the Chapel of the Palais Royale, Paris, and had issue:

  1 Marie Louise (1662–1689); she married Charles II, King of Spain (1661–1700).

  2 Miscarriage (1663).

  3 Philip Charles, Duke of Valois (1664–1666).

  4 Unnamed daughter (b.&d.1665).

  5 Miscarriage (1666).

  6 Miscarriage (1667).

  7 Miscarriage (1668).

  8 Anne Marie (1669–1728); she married Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia (1666–1732), and had issue, from whom descends the present day Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain (who is a Roman Catholic and therefore barred from the succession).

  Henrietta Anne died on 15 or 30 June, 1670, at the Palace of St Cloud, near Paris, and was buried in the Cathedral of St Denis, Paris.

  CHARLES I

  He was tried and condemned to death by an illegally convened Parliament following the conclusion of the Civil War between the Cavaliers (supporters of the King) and the Roundheads (Parliamentarians), the latter being led by Oliver Cromwell. Charles I was convicted of treason against the state, and was executed on 30 January, 1649, outside Whitehall Palace, London. He was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor. After his death, Britain was declared a Republic (for the only time in its history) with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. Charles I was succeeded in name only by his son Charles, then in exile in France.

  Charles II

  * * *

  FATHER: Charles I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Henrietta Maria of France ( see here, under Charles I).

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Charles I).

  CHARLES II

  He was born on 29 May, 1630, at St James’s Palace, London, and was Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay from birth. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 21 May, 1638, and around the same time was designated Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, although he was never formally so created. He succeeded his father as King of Great Britain in name only on 30 January, 1649; Charles I was executed on that day, and Charles II was then an exile in France, whilst Cromwell took up the reins of government in Britain under the title Lord Protector. The Scots rallied to Charles’ cause, and he was crowned on 1 January, 1651, at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. He was formally restored to the throne of Great Britain, Cromwell having died, on 29 May, 1660, and was crowned on 23 April, 1661, at Westminster Abbey.

  Charles II married, on 21/22 May, 1662, at the Church of St Thomas à Becket, Portsmouth:

  Katherine Henrietta

  She was the daughter of John IV, Duke of Braganza and King of Portugal, by Louisa Maria, daughter of John Manuel Domingo Perez de Guzman, 8th Duke of Medina-Sidonia, and she was born on 15 (O.S.) or 25 (N.S.) November, 1638, at Vila Viçosa, Lisbon, Portugal. She was never crowned as Queen Consort because she was a Roman Catholic and could not take part in the Anglican coronation ritual. She died on 30 November or 1 December, 1705, at Belém Palace or at Bemposta Palace, Lisbon, Portugal, and was buried in the monastery of Belém, Lisbon.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Miscarriage

  This occurred in 1662.

  2 Stillborn child

  It was born in February, 1666, at Oxford.

  3 Stillborn child

  It was born on 7 May, 1668.

  4 Stillborn child

  It was born on c.7 June, 1669.

  Charles II also had the following illegitimate issue:

  By Margaret de Carteret of Jersey:

  1 James, a Jesuit (1646–1667?).

  By Lucy (1630?–1658), daughter of Richard Walter of Haverfordwest:

  2 James Crofts, who took his wife’s surname of Scott upon marriage, Duke of Monmouth (1649–executed 1685); he married Anne (1651–1732), daughter of Francis Scott, Earl of Buccleuch, and had issue.

  Monmouth always claimed that his parents had been married, and that he was therefore legitimate; he also claimed to possess their marriage lines, but never produced them.

  Lucy Walter bore another child, Mary, but Charles II was not her father.

  By Elizabeth, afterwards Lady Shannon, daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew:

  3 Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy (1650–1684); she married firstly James Howard, Earl of Suffolk (d.1669). She married secondly William Paston, 2nd Earl of Yarmouth (1653–1732), and had issue.

  By Katherine, daughter of Thomas Pegge of Yeldersley, Derbyshire:

  4 Charles FitzCharles, Earl of Plymouth (1657–1680); he married Bridget (d.1718), daughter of Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds.

  5 Katherine (1658–1759); she was a nun at Dunkirk, France.

  6 Unnamed daughter (?) (Katherine?); her existence is conjectural. She is said to have died young.

  By Barbara (1641–1709), daughter of William Villiers, 2nd Viscount Grandison, and wife of Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine; she was later created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right:

  7 Anne FitzRoy (1661–1722); she married Thomas Lennard, Earl of Sussex (1654–1715). She was possibly the daughter of Roger Palmer, although the King acknowledged her as his own.

  8 Charles FitzRoy, Duke of Southampton and Cleveland (1662–1730); he married firstly Mary (1664–1680), daughter of Sir Henry Wood. He married secondly Anne (1663–1745), daughter of Sir William Poultney of Misterton, Leics., and had issue.

  9 Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton (1663–1690); he married Isabella (d.1723), daughter of Henry Bennett, 1st Earl of Arlington, and had issue.

  10 Charlotte FitzRoy (1664–1717); she married Edward Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield (1663–1716), and had issue.

  11 George FitzRoy, Duke of Northumberland (1665–1716); he married firstly Katherine (d.1714), daughter of Robert Wheatley of Bracknell, Berks., and secondly Mary (d.1738), daughter of Henry Dutton.

  12 Barbara (who later assumed the name Benedicte when she entered the religious life) Prioress of Hôtel Dieu, Pontoise, France (1672–1737). She had illegitimate issue. Although Lady Castlemaine claimed that Charles II was Barbara’s father, other evidence makes it more probable that she was the daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

  By Eleanor, known as ‘Nell’ (1650–1687), daughter of Thomas Gwyn or Gwynne:

  13 Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St Albans (1670–1726); he married Diana (d.1742), daughter of Aubrey de Vere, 20th Earl of Oxford, and had issue.

  14 James, Lord Beauclerk (1671–1680).

  By Louise Renée de Penencoët de Quérouialle (or Kérouaille), Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1649–1734):

  15 Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond, and Duke of Aubigny in France (1672–1723); he married Anne, daughter of Francis, Lord Brudenell, and had issue.

  By Mary, or ‘Moll’, Davies, an actress:

  16 Mary Tudor (1673–1726); she married firstly Edward Ratcliffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater (1655–1705), and had issue. She married secondly Henry Graham of Levens (d.1707), and thirdly James Rooke.

  CHARLES II

  He died on 6 February, 1685, at Whitehall Palace, London, of the effects of a stroke, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  He was succeeded by his brother James.

  James II

  * * *

  FATHER: Charles I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Henrietta Maria of France ( see here, under Charles I).

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under Charles I).

  JAMES II

  He was born on 14 (O.S.) or 24 (N.S.) October, 1633, at St James’s Palace, London, and was designated Duke of York from birth. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 20 April, 1642. He was created Duke of York on 27 January, 1644, and Earl of Ulster on 10 May, 1659. He was created Duke of Normandy by Louis XIV of France on 31 December, 1660. He succeeded his brother Charles II as King of Great Britain on 6 February, 1685. Having converted to Roman Catholicism sometime previously, he was
privately crowned by Catholic rites on 22 April, 1685, at Whitehall Palace, London; he was crowned by the traditional Anglican ritual on 23 April, 1685, at Westminster Abbey.

  James II married firstly, in secret in November or on 24 December, 1659, at Breda, Holland (although doubts exist as to whether this ceremony ever took place), and publicly on 3 September, 1660, at Worcester House, The Strand, London:

  Anne

  She was the daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, by Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, and she was born on 12 or 22 March, 1637, at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor. She died on 31 March, 1671, at St James’s Palace, London, of cancer, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Charles

  He was born on 22 October, 1660, at Worcester House, The Strand, London, and was designated Duke of Cambridge. He died on 5 May, 1661, at Whitehall Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  2 Mary II ( see here).

  3 James

  He was born on 11 or 12 July, 1663, at St James’s Palace, London. He was created Duke and Earl of Cambridge and Baron of Dauntsey, Wilts., on 23 August, 1664, and was made a Knight of the Garter on 3 December, 1666. He died on 20 June, 1667, at Richmond Palace, Surrey, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  4 Queen Anne ( see here).

  5 Charles

  He was born on 4 July, 1666, at St James’s Palace, London, and was designated Duke of Kendal, Earl of Wigmore and Baron Holdenby; there is no evidence of any formal creation. He died on 22 May, 1667, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  6 Edgar

  He was born on 14 September, 1667, at St James’s Palace, London. He was created Duke and Earl of Cambridge and Baron of Dauntsey, Wilts., on 7 October, 1667. He died on 8 June, 1671, at Richmond Palace, Surrey, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  7 Henrietta

  She was born on 13 January, 1669, at Whitehall Palace, London. She died on 15 November, 1669, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  8 Katherine

  She was born on 9 February, 1671, probably at Whitehall Palace, London (less probably at Richmond Palace, Surrey). She died on 5 December, 1671, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  James II married secondly, by proxy on 20 (O.S.) or 30 (N.S.) September, 1673, at the Ducal Palace, Modena, Italy, and in person on 21 November, 1673, at Dover, Kent:

  Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabella

  Baptised Maria, but called Mary from the time of her marriage, she was the daughter of Alfonso d’Este III, Duke of Modena, by Laura, daughter of Girolamo Martinozzi, and she was born on 25 September (O.S.) or 5 October (N.S.), 1658, at the Ducal Palace, Modena, Italy. She was crowned Queen Consort by Catholic rites on 22 April, 1685, at Whitehall Palace, London, and by Anglican rites on 23 April, 1685, at Westminster Abbey. She died on 7/8 May, 1718, at the Château of St Germain-en-Laye, Paris, of cancer, and was buried in the Abbey of the Visitation of St Mary, Chaillot, France (although her body was later destroyed during the French Revolution).

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Stillborn child

  It was born in March or May, 1674.

  2 Katherine Laura

  She was born on 10 January, 1675, at St James’s Palace, London. She died on 3 October, 1675, at St James’s Palace, London, of convulsions, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  3 Stillborn child

  It was born in October, 1675.

  4 Isabella

  She was born on 18 (O.S.) or 28 (N.S.) August, 1676, at St James’s Palace, London. She died on 2 or 4 March, 1681, at St James’s Palace, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  5 Charles

  He was born on 7 November, 1677, at St James’s Palace, London, and was designated Duke of Cambridge. He died on 12 December, 1677, at St James’s Palace, of smallpox, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  6 Elizabeth

  She was born and died in c.1678.

  7 Stillborn child

  It was born in February, 1681.

  8 Charlotte Maria

  She was born on 16 August, 1682, either at St James’s Palace, London, or at Windsor Castle. She died on 6 October, 1682, at St James’s Palace, of convulsions, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  9 Stillborn child

  It was born in October, 1683.

  10 Stillborn child

  It was born in May, 1684.

  11 James Francis Edward

  Called ‘James III’, according to Roman Catholic doctrine, he was also known as the ‘Chevalier de St George’ or ‘The Old Pretender’. He was born on 10 June, 1688, at St James’s Palace, London. There were widespread rumours at the time that he was a changeling, smuggled into the Queen’s bed in a warming pan, but this was mere political invention. What is certain is that the birth of a Catholic heir ensured that James II’s days as King were numbered. James was Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay from birth, and was styled Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester from birth. His father abdicated when he was a baby, and he spent his life in exile in France or Italy. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1692. He succeeded his father as Stuart pretender to the throne of Great Britain (from which he was barred by the Act of Settlement) on 16 September, 1701, and was proclaimed in France as ‘James III of England and VIII of Scotland’. He was attainted by Act of Parliament on 2 March, 1702, and forfeited all his British titles. He died on 1 January, 1766, in Rome, where he was buried in St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican.

  James married, by proxy on 9 (O.S.) or 19 (N.S.) May, 1719, at Bologna, Italy, and in person on 1 or 3 September, 1719, at Montefiascone Cathedral, Italy:

  Maria Casimire Clementina

  She was the daughter of Prince James Louis Henry Sobieski of Poland, by Hedwig Elizabeth Amelia, daughter of Philip William, Elector of Pfalz-Neuburg, and she was born on 6 (O.S.) or 17/18 (N.S.) July, 1702. She was called ‘Queen of Great Britain’ by adherents of the Stuarts. She died on 12 or 18 January, 1735, at the Apostolic Palace, Rome, and was buried in St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican.

  Issue of marriage:

  (i) Charles Edward Louis John Philip Casimir Sylvester Maria

  Called ‘Charles III’ by his adherents, he was also known as the ‘Chevalier de St George’, ‘The Young Pretender’ and ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’. He was born on 31 December, 1720, at the Palazzo Muti, Rome, and was styled ‘Prince of Wales’ from birth. He sometimes styled himself ‘Count of Albany’. On the death of his father on 1 January, 1766, he succeeded him as Stuart pretender to the throne of Great Britain, styling himself ‘Charles III’. He died on 30/31 January, 1788, at the Palazzo Muti, Papazurri, Rome, and was buried in Frascati Cathedral, Italy. His remains were later removed to St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican.

  Charles had the following illegitimate issue:

  By Clementina Maria Sophia Walkinshaw, Countess of Alberstroff (d.1802):

  1 Charlotte, Countess of Albany in her own right (1753–1789). She had illegitimate issue.

  Charles married, by proxy on 28 March, 1772, in Paris, and in person on 17 April, 1772, at the Chapel of the Palazzo Compagnani, Marefoschi, Macerata, Ancona, Italy:

  Louise Maximiliana Caroline Emanuèle

  She was the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Prince of Stolberg-Gedern, by Elizabeth Philippine Claudine, daughter of Maximilian Emanuel, Prince of Homes and of the Empire. She was born on 20 or 21 September, 1752, at Mons, Hainault, Flanders. After her marriage, she was styled ‘Queen of Great Britain’ by adherents of the Jacobite cause. It is possible, but not probable, that she made a second marriage, either with Count Vittorio Alfieri, or with Francis Xavier Fabre. She died on 29 January, 1824, at Florence, Italy, and was buried in the Church of Santa Croce, Florence.

  (ii) Henry Benedict Maria Clement Thomas Francis Xavier

  He was born on 6 or 21 March, 1725, at the Palazzo Muti, Papazurri, Rome, Italy, and was styled ‘Duke of York’ from
birth by adherents of the Jacobite cause. He entered the Roman Catholic Church, and was ordained Cardinal Deacon on 30 June, 1747, and Cardinal of Santa Maria, Portici, on 3 July, 1747, before being ordained as a priest on 1 September, 1748. He was known thereafter as ‘Cardinal York’. He was provided to the Archbishopric of Corinth on 19 November, 1758, but was translated to the Bishopric of Frascati, Italy, on 13 July, 1761. He succeeded his brother Charles as Pretender to the throne of Great Britain on 30/31 January, 1788, styling himself ‘Henry IX’. He died on 13 July, 1807, at Frascati, Italy, and was buried in St Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican, Rome, after being briefly laid to rest in the church of St Andrea della Valle, Rome.

  12 Louisa Maria Theresa

  She was baptised Louisa Maria, and received the name Theresa at her confirmation. She was born on 18 (O.S.) or 28 (N.S.) June, 1692, at the Château of St Germain-en-Laye, Paris, and died there on 8 (O.S.) or 18 (N.S.) April, 1712. She was buried in the Chapel of St Edmund in the Church of the English Benedictines, Rue St Jacques, Paris, but later transferred to St Germain-en-Laye by order of George IV.

 
Previous Page Next Page
Should you have any enquiry, please contact us via [email protected]