Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir


  William I married, in c.1050/52 at the Cathedral of Notre Dame d’Eu in Normandy:

  Matilda

  She was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, by Adela, daughter of Robert II, King of France. She was born in c.1032, and was crowned Queen Consort on 11 May, 1068, either at Westminster Abbey or in Winchester Cathedral. Matilda died on 2 November, 1083, at Caen in Normandy, and was buried in the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, her own foundation known as the Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, Normandy.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Robert

  Known as ‘Curthose’, he was born in c.1052/4 in Normandy. He succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy on 9 September, 1087, but was deprived of the dukedom by his brother Henry I on 28 September, 1106, after losing the Battle of Tinchebrai in Normandy. Robert was henceforth a prisoner in England for the rest of his life. He died on 3, 10 or 15 February, 1134/5, still in captivity, at Cardiff Castle, and was buried in Gloucester Cathedral.

  Robert married, in 1100, at Apulia, Sicily:

  Sybilla

  She was the daughter of Geoffrey, Count of Conversano. She died around February or March, 1103, at Rouen in Normandy, probably in childbed, although one chronicler states she was poisoned by a rival for her husband’s affections. She was either buried at Caen in Normandy, or in Rouen Cathedral, Normandy.

  Issue of marriage:

  (i) William

  Known as ‘Clito’, he was born in 1101 at Rouen in Normandy. In the Spring of 1127, he was created Count of Flanders by right of inheritance through his grandmother Matilda of Flanders. He died on 27 July, 1128, at the Abbey of St Bertin, St Omer, France, of wounds received at the Battle of Alost, and was buried in the Abbey of St Bertin, St Omer, France.

  William married firstly, in 1123 (although no record exists as to where):

  Sybilla

  She was the daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou, by Aremburga, daughter of Hélias I, Count of Maine. She was born between 1112 and 1116. Her marriage to William Clito was annulled in 1124. She married secondly, Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders (d.1168), in 1134, and had issue, including:

  1 Matthew I, Count of Flanders and Boulogne (d.1173), who married Mary, daughter of King Stephen, and had issue.

  Sybilla retired in middle age to the Abbey of St Lazarus in Bethlethem, where she became a nun. She died and was buried there in 1165.

  William married secondly, in January, 1128 (although no record exists as to where):

  Joan (or Giovanna)

  She was the daughter of Ranieri, Marquess of Montferrat, by Gisla, daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy. No dates are recorded.

  (ii) Henry

  He was born in 1102. He was killed whilst hunting in the New Forest in Hampshire; the year is not known.

  Robert also had the following illegitimate issue:

  By a priest’s wife or mistress:

  1 Richard (killed in the New Forest in 1100).

  2 William (killed c.1110 at the Battle of Jerusalem, fighting the Infidel). He was Lord of Tortosa.

  By an unknown woman:

  3 Daughter (name not known); she married Hélias of Saint-Saëns, Count of Arques.

  2 Richard

  He was born before 1054 (or 1056?) in Normandy, and is said to have been created Duke of Bernay in Normandy. He was gored to death by a stag in 1075 or 1081, whilst hunting in the New Forest, Hampshire, and was buried in Winchester Cathedral.

  3 Cecilia

  She was born in c.1054/5 in Normandy, and entered the novitiate at the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, her mother’s foundation, on 18 June, 1066. She was professed there as a nun on 5 April, 1075, and was elected Abbess of Caen in 1112. She died on 3 July, 1126, at Caen, where she was buried in the Abbey of the Holy Trinity.

  4 Adeliza

  She was possibly born in 1055. Ordericus Vitalis states that she took religious vows early in life. Robert of Torigny states that she was at one time betrothed to Harold II when he was Earl of Wessex. She was probably dead by 5 January, 1066.

  5 William II ( see here).

  6 Constance

  She was born in c.1057 or c.1061 in Normandy. She married Alan IV Fergant, Duke of Brittany (d.1119), at Caen, Normandy, in c.1086. She died on 13 August, 1090, perhaps poisoned by her servants, and was buried in the Church of St Melans, near Rhedon, Brittany. Sandford, writing in the 17th century, perpetrated the myth that she was married 25 years and was buried in the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.

  7 Adela ( see here, under King Stephen).

  8 Henry I ( see here).

  9 Agatha

  Alternatively called Elgiva, or Margaret, she may have been born in 1064. She was married by proxy to Alfonso VI (d.1109), King of Galicia and Léon, at the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, but died before 1074, before the marriage could be consummated. She was buried in Bayeux Cathedral, Normandy.

  10 Matilda

  Very little is known of her. She died unmarried before 1112.

  Note: There is no evidence that either William or Matilda were the parents of Gundrada, Countess of Surrey. Charters attesting this have been proved spurious.

  WILLIAM I

  He died on 9 September, 1087, at the Priory of St Gervais, Rouen, Normandy, of wounds received at the siege of Mantes. He was buried in St Stephen’s Abbey, Caen, Normandy, his own foundation.

  He was succeeded in England by his son William (and in Normandy by his son Robert).

  William II

  * * *

  FATHER: William I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Matilda of Flanders ( see here, under William I).

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under William I).

  WILLIAM II

  Known as ‘Rufus’, he was born between c.1056 and 1060 in Normandy. He succeeded his father as King of England on 9 September, 1087, and was crowned on 26 September, 1087, in Westminster Abbey. He never married.

  William is said by an unreliable 18th-century source to have had the following illegitimate issue:

  1 Berstrand.

  WILLIAM II

  He was killed, perhaps murdered on the orders of his brother Henry, by an arrow in his back on 2 August, 1100, in the New Forest, Hampshire. He was buried in Winchester Cathedral.

  He was succeeded by his brother Henry.

  Henry I

  * * *

  FATHER: William I ( see here).

  MOTHER: Matilda of Flanders ( see here, under William I)

  SIBLINGS: ( see here, under William I).

  HENRY I

  Known as ‘Beauclerk’ or ‘the Lion of Justice’, he was born in September, 1068, at Selby, Yorkshire. He became Lord of Domfront in 1092, and Count of Coutances and Bayeux in 1096. He succeeded his brother William II as King of England on 3 August, 1100, and was crowned on 5/6 August, 1100, at Westminster Abbey. He usurped the duchy of Normandy on 28 September, 1106, after defeating his brother Robert, its lawful Duke, at the Battle of Tinchebrai.

  Henry I married firstly, on 11 November 1100, at Westminster Abbey:

  Matilda

  She was christened Edith, but adopted the name Matilda upon her marriage as it was thought the Norman barons might not respect a queen with a Saxon name. She was the daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, by St Margaret, a great-granddaughter of Ethelred II, and her marriage to Henry I represented the union of Norman and Saxon royal lines. Matilda was born probably in the autumn of 1080, and was crowned Queen Consort on 11 or 14 November, 1100, at Westminster Abbey. She died on 1 May, 1118, at the Palace of Westminster, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Euphemia

  She was perhaps the child born in late July or early August, 1101, at Winchester, who died young.

  2 Adelaide

  She adopted the name Matilda upon her marriage. ( see here, under Henry II).

  3 William

  He was born before 5 August, 1103, at Winchester. Styled ‘Atheling’, he was designated Duke of Normandy in 1120. He drowned on 25 November, 1
120, when the White Ship sank off Barfleur in Normandy.

  William married, in June, 1119, at Lisieux in Normandy:

  Matilda

  She was christened Alice, but adopted the name Matilda upon her marriage, although she is sometimes called Isabella. She was the daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou, by Aremburga, daughter of Hélias I, Count of Maine, and sister to Sybilla, wife of William Clito, grandson of William I. She was born between c.1107 and 1111 in Anjou. After her husband drowned, she became in c.1121 a nun at Fontevrault Abbey in France, where she was elected Abbess in 1148. She died at Fontevrault Abbey in 1154, and was perhaps buried there. There was no issue of her marriage to William.

  4 Richard

  He drowned with his brother William on 25 November, 1120, when the White Ship sank off Barfleur in Normandy. Some sources state that the Richard who drowned in the White Ship was Henry I’s natural son, and that his legitimate son Richard died in infancy. However, both Robert of Gloucester and the Saxon Chronicle state that Queen Matilda’s son Richard drowned in the White Ship.

  Henry I married secondly, on 29 January (or, less probably, 2 February), 1121, at the Chapel Royal in Windsor Castle:

  Adeliza

  Alternatively known as Adelicia, Adela, Adelaide, Adeline or Alice, she was the daughter of Geoffrey VII, Count of Louvain, Duke of Lower Brabant and Lower Lorraine, by Ida, daughter of Albert III, Count of Namur and Countess of Namur in her own right. There are no records of Adeliza’s date of birth, but she was described as ‘nubile’ in 1120, thus she was perhaps born between c.1103 and c.1106. She was crowned Queen Consort on 30 January (or, less probably, 3 February), 1121, at Westminster Abbey. After the death of Henry I, she married secondly William d’Albini, Earl of Arundel (d.1176), after 1136 and before September, 1139, and had issue:

  1 William, 2nd Earl of Arundel (before 1150–1193); he married Matilda, daughter of James de St Hilary du Harcourt, and had issue.

  2 Reyner.

  3 Henry.

  4 Geoffrey.

  5 Alice (d.1188); she married firstly John, Count of Eu, Lord of Hastings (d.1170), and had issue. She married secondly Alvred de St Martin (d. after 1189).

  6 Olivia. She died young, and was buried in Boxgrove Priory, Sussex.

  7 Agatha. She died young, and was buried in Boxgrove Priory, Sussex.

  Adeliza became a nun at Affligem Abbey, near Alost in South Brabant, in c.1149/50. She died on 23/24 March (or 23 April), 1151 at Affligem Abbey, and was buried there.

  Henry I also had the following illegitimate issue:

  By Sybilla (also known as Adela or Lucy), daughter of Sir Robert Corbet of Alcester, Co. Warwick, and afterwards wife of Herbert FitzHerbert (d. by 1165):

  1 Robert Fitzroy of Caen, Earl of Gloucester (1090/95–1147); he married Mabel (d.1157), daughter of Robert FitzHamon, Earl of Gloucester, and had issue. There is no certain evidence to show that Sybilla really was Robert’s mother, who may have been an unknown woman of Caen.

  2 Reginald or Rainald of Dunstanville, Earl of Cornwall (by 1110?–1175); he married Beatrice, daughter of William FitzRichard, and had issue.

  3 William (by 1105–after 1187); he married a lady called Alice, of whom nothing more is known.

  4 Sybilla ( see here, under Alexander I, King of Scotland).

  5 Gundrada (alive in 1130).

  6 Rohese (d. after 1176); she married Henry de la Pomerai (d.c.1167), and had issue.

  By Ansfrida, widow of Anskill, a knight and tenant of Abingdon Abbey:

  7 Richard of Lincoln (drowned in the White Ship, 1120).

  8 Fulk (b. before 1100); he either died young, or grew up and became a monk at Abingdon Abbey.

  9 Juliana (1090?–after 1136); she married Eustace of Breteuil, Lord of Pacy (d.1136), and had issue. In widowhood, she became a nun at Fontevrault Abbey. There is some doubt that Ansfrida was her mother, but circumstantial evidence makes this likely.

  By Nesta, Princess of Deheubarth (d.c.1114), daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of Deheubarth, by Gladys of Powys, and wife of Gerald de Windsor (d. by 1136):

  10 Henry FitzHenry (1103? or 1105?; by 1109–killed 1157); he married an unknown lady and had issue.

  By Edith, daughter of Forn Sigulfson, Lord of Greystoke, Cumberland (d.1173); afterwards wife of Robert d’Oilli:

  11 Robert FitzEdith, Baron of Okenhampton (d.1172); he married Matilda, Dame du Sap, daughter of Robert d’Avranches, and had issue.

  By Isabella of Meulan (b.c.1102/7), daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, and afterwards Countess of Pembroke:

  12 Isabella or Elizabeth (b.1120?). Died unmarried.

  By Edith, of unknown origin (d. after 1130):

  13 Matilda or Mary (1090?–1120: drowned in the White Ship); she married Rotrou II, Count of Perche (d.1144), and had issue.

  By unknown mothers:

  14 William de Tracy (d.1136? or 1140?); he married an unknown lady and had issue.

  15 Gilbert (1130?–1142).

  16 Matilda; she married Conan III, Duke of Brittany (d.1148), and had issue.

  17 Constance or Matilda; she married Richard or Roscelin, Viscount of Beaumont-le-Maine, and had issue including Ermengarde, wife of William the Lyon, King of Scotland.

  18 Eustacia; she married William Gouet III, Lord of Montmirail.

  19 Alice or Aline; she married Matthew de Montmorenci, Constable of France, and had issue.

  20 Matilda, Abbess of Montvilliers.

  21 Daughter (name not known), who was betrothed at one time (c.1109) to William de Warenne.

  22 Joan or Elizabeth; she married Fergus of Galloway, and had issue.

  23 Emma; she married Guy de Laval.

  24 Daughter (name not known), to be betrothed to Hugh FitzGervais in c.1110.

  25 Sybilla of Falaise; she married Baldwin de Boullers.

  HENRY I

  He died on 1/2 December, 1135, at St Denis le Fermont in the Forest of Angers, near Rouen, Normandy, of food poisoning. He was buried in Reading Abbey, Berkshire, his own foundation. His tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.

  He was succeeded by his nephew Stephen of Blois, although he had made his barons swear allegiance to his daughter Matilda as his successor.

  King Stephen

  * * *

  FATHER: Stephen Henry

  He was the son of Theobald III, Count of Blois; he married Adela of Normandy ( below) in 1080 at Breteuil in France, and again in 1081 at Chartres Cathedral, France. He succeeded his father as Count Palatine of Blois, Brie, Chartres and Meaux before 1090. He was killed on 19 May, 1102, during the siege of Ramula in the Holy Land, being slain by the Saracens after the battle of Ascalon.

  Stephen had the following illegitimate issue:

  1 Emma; she married Herbert II, Count of Maine, and had issue.

  MOTHER: Adela

  She was the daughter of William I by Matilda of Flanders, and she was born in c.1062 in Normandy. During her widowhood, she became a nun at the Cluniac Priory of Marigney-sur-Loire in the Diocese of Autun in France in c.1122. She died in 1137 or 1138 at Marigney, and was buried in the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy.

  SIBLINGS:

  1 Humbert, Count of Virtus (d. young).

  2 William, Count of Chartres, Lord of Sulli (d. after 1104); he married Agnes (d. after 1104), daughter of Giles, Lord of Sulli, and had issue. William is described in the chronicles as an idiot, and was disinherited in favour of his younger brother Theobald in the succession to Blois.

  3 Theobald IV, Count of Blois (1085/91?–1152); he also became Count of Champagne, and married Matilda, daughter of Ingelbert II, Duke of Carinthia, and had issue.

  4 Henry; he was born in c.1099 at Winchester, and became a monk at the Priory of Cluny in France during his childhood. He later transferred to Bermondsey Abbey, Surrey, where he became Abbot. He was elected Abbot of Glastonbury in Somerset in 1126. He was nominated Bishop of Winchester on 4 October, 1129, and consecrated on 17 November, 1129. He died on 6 August, 1171, at Winche
ster, and was buried in Winchester Cathedral.

  5 Philip, Bishop of Châlons (d.1100).

  6 Odo; he has perhaps been confused with Henry, who is referred to as Eudes in one charter.

  7 Matilda or Lucy; she married Richard d’Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester. Both were drowned in 1120 when the White Ship sank off Barfleur in Normandy.

  8 Agnes; she married Hugh III de Puiset, and had issue.

  9 Adela or Lithuise; she married Miles de Brai, Viscount of Troyes and Lord of Montlheri. The marriage was later annulled.

  10 Eleanor (d.1147); she married Raoul, Count of Vermandois.

  11 Alice; she married Reginald III, Count of Joigni.

  KING STEPHEN

  He was born in c.1096/7 (before 1100) at Blois, France. He was created Count of Mortain before 1115, and became Count of Boulogne in right of his wife before 1125. On 22 December, 1135, he usurped the throne of England upon the death of Henry I, who had left it to his daughter Matilda, to whom the barons had sworn allegiance. However, this had been given unwillingly, and it was generally felt that women were unfit to rule, hence Stephen met with little opposition, and was crowned on 26 December, 1135, at Westminster Abbey. By 1141, his weak government saw many of his nobles disillusioned and turning to Matilda, who invaded England that year. Stephen was deposed between 7 and 10 April, 1141, and imprisoned, while Matilda attempted to consolidate her claim to rule England. She failed in this, due to her haughtiness and high-handed approach to government, which alienated her supporters. Stephen was eventually released, and restored to the throne on 1 November, 1141; he was again crowned, on 25 December, 1141, at Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, and once again, in 1146, at Lincoln Cathedral.

 
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