Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir


  King Stephen married, before 1125:

  Matilda

  She was the daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne, by Mary, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, and sister to Matilda, wife of Henry I. Matilda was born around 1103/5, and became Countess of Boulogne in her own right on the death of her father. She was crowned Queen Consort on 22 March, 1136, at Westminster Abbey. She died on 2/3 May, 1152, at Hedingham Castle, Essex, and was buried in Faversham Abbey, Kent. Her tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 Baldwin

  He was born in c.1126, and died perhaps before 2 December (?), 1135 (certainly before 1137), in the Tower of London. He was buried in the Priory of the Holy Trinity, Aldgate Without, London.

  2 Eustace

  He was born between c.1127/31, or perhaps in December, 1135. He was created Count of Boulogne at Christmas, 1146/7, and is said to have also been created Earl of Huntingdon, but this is unlikely. Eustace was crowned King of England in 1152, during his father’s lifetime, but he never lived to succeed him, dying on 10 or 16 August, 1153, at Bury St Edmund’s, Suffolk. He was buried in Faversham Abbey, Kent.

  Eustace married, in February, 1140, in Paris:

  Constance

  She was the daughter of Louis VI, King of France, by Adelaide, daughter of Umberto II, Count of Savoy and Maurienne, and she was born in c.1128. After Eustace’s death, she married secondly Raymond V (d.1194), Count of Toulouse, in 1154, and had issue:

  1 Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse (1156–1222); he married firstly Ermensinda de Pelet (d.1176); he married secondly Beatrice of Beziers, whom he repudiated; he married thirdly, and bigamously, Bourguigne de Lusignan, Princess of Cyprus, whom he also repudiated; he married fourthly Joan, daughter of Henry II, and had issue.

  2 William (or Alberic, or Alfonso), surnamed Taillefer (d.1183/4).

  3 Baldwin (d.1212).

  4 Alesia (d.1183); she married Roger, Viscount of Beziers.

  5 Laura; she married Odo, Count of Comminger.

  Constance died on 16 August, 1176, at Rheims in France.

  3 William

  He was born between c.1132 and 1137. He became Earl of Surrey in right of his wife before 1148/9. He succeeded his mother as Count of Boulogne on 17 August, 1153, and succeeded his father as Count of Mortain on 25 October, 1154. He was killed on 11 October, 1159, at the siege of Toulouse in France, and was buried in the Hospital of Montmorillon, Poitou, France.

  William married, before 1148/9, although no evidence exists as to where:

  Isabella

  She was the daughter of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey, by Adela, daughter of William Talvas, Count of Ponthieu, and she was born in c.1136/7. After the death of William, she married secondly Hamelin of Anjou, Earl of Surrey (1129?–1202), a bastard brother of Henry II. Hamelin adopted her surname ‘de Warenne’ when the couple were married in April, 1164. They had issue:

  1 William, 5th Earl of Surrey (d.1240); he married Matilda, who was perhaps a member of the Albini family. He married secondly Matilda (d.1248), daughter of William Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke, and had issue. He also had illegitimate issue.

  2 Matilda (d.c.1212); she married firstly Henry, Count of Eu and Baron Hastings (d.1183), and had issue, and secondly Henry d’Estouteville of Eckington, Co. Derby (d. after 1231).

  3 Isabella; she married firstly Robert de Lascy, and secondly Gilbert de l’Aigle, Lord of Pevensey, Sussex.

  4 Ela; she married firstly Robert de Newburn, and secondly William FitzWilliam of Sprotborough.

  5 Mary, Margaret or Matilda (d. after 1208); it may have been she, and not her sister Isabella, who married Gilbert de l’Aigle.

  Isabella died on 13 July, 1199 or 1203, and was buried in the Chapter House, Lewes Priory, Sussex.

  4 Matilda

  She was born in c.1133/4, and was married in infancy at c.Easter, 1136, to Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (1104–1166). She died either before 1137 or in 1141 in the Tower of London, and was buried in the Priory of the Holy Trinity, Aldgate Without, London.

  5 Mary

  She was born in c.1136; she was dedicated to religion in her infancy and entered as a novice at Lillechurch Priory, Kent. She transferred to Romsey Abbey, Hampshire, where she was professed a nun between c.1148 and 1155. She was elected Abbess of Romsey after 1155. She succeeded her brother William as Countess of Boulogne on 5 October, 1159. She was abducted from her convent in 1160 by Matthew I, Count of Flanders and Boulogne (d.1173), who made her his wife in defiance of her religious vows around the same time. They had issue:

  1 Ida, Countess of Boulogne (1161?–1216); she married firstly Gerard III, Count of Gueldres (d.1183), and secondly Berthold IV, Duke of Zehringen (d.1186); and thirdly Reginald de Tree, Count of Dammartin, and had issue.

  2 Matilda (1162?–c.1211); she married Henry I, Duke of Louvain and Brabant (c.1158–1235), and had issue.

  Mary’s marriage was annulled in c.1169, and she re-entered the religious life at the Benedictine nunnery of St Austrebert, near Montreuil, France, where she died and was buried in 1182.

  King Stephen also had the following illegitimate issue:

  By Dameta, a gentlewoman of Normandy:

  1 Gervaise, Abbot of Westminster (c.1115/20–1160).

  2 Almaric; he is called a brother of Gervaise in charters.

  3 Ralph; he is called a brother of Gervaise in charters.

  By unknown mothers:

  4 William; he is mentioned only in 17th- and 19th-century genealogies.

  5 Sybilla (d.c.1141); she married Hervey le Breton of Léon, Earl of Wiltshire (d.1168).

  KING STEPHEN

  He died on 25 October, 1154, in a monastery at Dover, Kent, and was buried in Faversham Abbey, Kent. His tomb was destroyed during the Reformation.

  He was succeeded by his second cousin Henry, son of the Empress Matilda.

  CHAPTER THREE

  The Angevin or Plantagenet Kings of England

  When, in 1120, the White Ship sank off Barfleur in Normandy, Henry I lost to the sea, not only four of his children, but also both his legitimate heirs. His second marriage in 1121 produced no issue, and when he died in 1135, his only surviving child was a girl, the Empress Matilda, then wedded to her second husband, Geoffrey, Count of Anjou. Matilda was in Anjou when her father died, and the crown of England was seized by Stephen of Blois, her cousin, in defiance of the oath of allegiance that he and other magnates had taken to Matilda as Henry’s successor. Matilda triumphed only briefly over Stephen, in 1141, when the crown came tantalisingly within her reach, but she alienated by her hauteur and overbearing manner many of her supporters, and eventually had to retire from the conflict. Yet she continued to promote the cause of her son Henry as heir to England, and in 1153, when faced by an invading army led by that young, determined and very capable man, Stephen had to bow to public opinion and name him his successor. Thus came about the Treaty of Wallingford, which passed over the claims of Eustace and William, Stephen’s sons, and recognised that of Henry of Anjou, who succeeded without hindrance to the throne of England the following year, Eustace having died some months previously, which most thought was very fortunate.

  Thus was established the Angevin or Plantagenet dynasty. The name ‘Plantagenet’ comes from the sprig of broom flower (Latin: planta genista) that Henry’s father Geoffrey was accustomed to wearing in his hat. That name, however, was not formally adopted by the dynasty until the 15th century, when Richard, Duke of York, was the first to use it as a surname to emphasise his claim to the throne during the Wars of the Roses.

  The Plantagenets were a dynamic race, one of the most energetic and brilliant families of rulers the world has known. Reputedly descended from a witch, Melusine, who married an early Count of Anjou then vanished in a puff of smoke when he forced her to attend Mass – a tale the Angevin Kings were fond of relating – they ruled England for over 300 years, and for more than 200 of those years the crown passed, usually peacefully, fr
om father to son. What occurred to break this pattern will be related in the next chapter.

  Henry II

  * * *

  FATHER: Geoffrey

  Surnamed Plantagenet after the broom flower he wore in his hat, he was the son of Fulk V, Count of Anjou, by Aremburga, daughter of Hélias I, Count of Maine; his sisters were married to a grandson of William I and the son of Henry I. Geoffrey was born on 24 August, 1113, and married the Empress Matilda on 3 April, 22 May or 17 June, 1128, at Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou. He succeeded his father as Count of Anjou in 1129, and was proclaimed Duke of Normandy on 19 January, 1144, after conquering the duchy. He died on 7 September, 1151, at Château du Loire, France, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou.

  Geoffrey had the following illegitimate issue:

  By Adelaide of Angers:

  1 Hamelin, who adopted the surname ‘de Warenne’ upon marriage, Earl of Surrey (1129?–1202); he married Isabella de Warenne, daughter-in-law of King Stephen, and had issue.

  By unknown mothers:

  2 Mary, Abbess of Shaftesbury, Dorset (d.c.1216).

  3 Emma (d. before 1214?); she married firstly Guy, Sire de Laval (d.1170/73), and secondly David ap Owen, Prince of East Gwynnedd (d.1204), and had issue.

  MOTHER: Matilda

  Christened Adelaide, she adopted the name Matilda on her first marriage. She was the daughter of Henry I by Matilda of Scotland, and she was born in c.February (by August), 1102, either at Winchester or in London. She married firstly Henry V, Emperor of Germany (d.1125), on 7 January, 1114, at Mainz in Germany, and was crowned there the same day. She was crowned again, with her husband, in 1117, in St Peter’s Basilica, Rome, by the Pope. On 7 April, 1141, having deposed and imprisoned King Stephen in pursuance of her claim to the English throne (she was her father’s rightful heir and Stephen a usurper), she assumed the title ‘Lady of the English’, never officially being styled Queen of England. She was deposed in favour of Stephen on 1 November, 1141, having failed to consolidate her position. Matilda died on 10 September, 1167, at the Abbey of Notre Dame des Prés, near Rouen, Normandy, and was buried firstly in the Convent of Bonnes at Nouvelles; soon afterwards, her remains were moved to Bec Abbey, Normandy, and later to Rouen Cathedral.

  SIBLINGS:

  1 Geoffrey

  He was born on 1 June, 1134, at Rouen or at Argentan, Normandy, and was created Count of Nantes in c.1150. He died unmarried on 26 July, 1158, at Nantes, Brittany, where he was buried.

  2 William

  He was born on 21 July, or in August, 1136, at Argentan in Normandy or at Angers, France, and was called Count of Poitou. He died unmarried on 30 January, 1164, at Rouen, Normandy, and was buried in Rouen Cathedral.

  Henry II did not have any sisters.

  HENRY II

  Known as ‘FitzEmpress’ or ‘Curtmantle’, he was born on 5 March, 1133, at Le Mans, Anjou. He became Count of Touraine and Maine in 1151, and succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou on 7 September, 1151. He became Duke of Aquitaine in right of his wife on 18 May, 1152. He succeeded his second cousin Stephen as King of England on 19 December, 1154, and was crowned on that day in Westminster Abbey.

  Henry II married, on 18 May, 1152, at Poitiers Cathedral, Poitou:

  Eleanor

  She was the daughter of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, by Aenor, daughter of Aimery I de Rochefoucauld, Viscount of Châtellérhault, and she was born around 1120/22, either at the ducal palace in Poitiers, or the Ombriere Palace, Bordeaux, or, according to local tradition, at Belin Castle, Guienne. She succeeded her father as Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitou on 9 April, 1137. She married firstly Louis VII, King of France (c.1120/21–1180), on 25 July, 1137, at Bordeaux Cathedral, and had issue:

  1 Marie (1145–1198); she married Henry I, Count of Champagne (1127–1181), and had issue.

  2 Alice (1150–1197/8); she married Theobald V, Count of Blois (d.1191), and had issue.

  Louis divorced Eleanor on grounds of consanguinity on 18 March, 1152. She was crowned Queen Consort with her second husband Henry II on 19 December, 1154, at Westminster Abbey. Eleanor died on 1 April, 1204, at Fontevrault Abbey, France, where she was buried.

  Issue of marriage:

  1 William

  He was born on 17 August, 1153, at Poitiers, Poitou, and was styled Count of Poitiers. He died in c.April or June, 1156, at Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, and was buried in Reading Abbey, Berkshire.

  2 Henry

  He was born on 28 February, 1155, at Bermondsey Palace, Surrey. He was crowned King of England on 14 June, 1170, at Westminster Abbey, during the lifetime of his father, being styled King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. Thereafter he was known as ‘the young king’. He was again crowned on 27 August, 1172, at Winchester Cathedral. He died on 11 June, 1183, at the house of a burgher, Etienne Fabri, at Martel in Quercy, France, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou; his remains were later removed to Rouen Cathedral in Normandy.

  Henry married, on 2 November, 1160, at Rouen Cathedral, Normandy:

  Margaret

  She was the daughter of Louis VII, King of France, by Constance, daughter of Alfonso VII, King of Castile, and she was born early in 1158. She was crowned Queen Consort with her husband on 27 August, 1172, at Winchester Cathedral. After the death of the Young King, she married secondly Bela III, King of Hungary (1148–1196), in 1185/6. She died in 1197 at Acre on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

  Issue of marriage:

  (i) William

  He was born on 19 June, 1177, in Paris, and died there on 22 June, 1177.

  3 Matilda

  She was born in June, 1156, either in London or, less probably, at Windsor Castle. She married Henry V ‘the Lion’, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (1129–1195), on 1 February, 1168, at Brunswick Cathedral, Germany, and had issue:

  1 Richenza (1172–1210); she married firstly Geoffrey III, Count of Perche (d.1202), and had issue, and secondly Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy.

  2 Henry, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (1175–1227); he married Agnes (d.1204), daughter of Conrad of Hohenstaufen, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and had issue.

  3 Lothaire (1181–1191).

  4 Son (name not known) (b.&d. 1182?).

  5 Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Earl of York and Count of Ponthieu (1183?–1218); he married firstly Beatrice of Swabia, daughter of Philip, Emperor of Germany, and secondly Mary, daughter of Henry I, Duke of Brabant.

  6 William, Duke of Lüneberg and Brunswick (1184–1213); he married Helen, daughter of Waldemar I, King of Denmark.

  7 Matilda.

  8 Eleanor (?).

  9 Gertrude (d.1197); she married Canute VI, King of Denmark (1163–1202).

  10 Ingibiorg (?); she is said to have married Waldemar II, King of Denmark (1170–1241).

  Matilda died on 28 June, 1189, at Brunswick in Germany, and was buried in Brunswick Cathedral.

  4 Richard I ( see here).

  5 Geoffrey

  He was born on 23 September, 1158, in England, and was styled Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany in right of his wife shortly after 6 September, 1181. He was either trampled to death during a tournament, or died of a fever, on 18 or 19 August, 1186, in Paris, and was buried in the Cathedral of Nôtre Dame, Paris.

  Geoffrey married, in July, 1181 (although no record exists as to where):

  Constance

  She was the daughter of Conan IV, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, by Margaret of Huntingdon, granddaughter of David I, King of Scotland. Constance was born around 1160/62 in Brittany. After the death of Geoffrey, she married secondly Ranulf de Blundeville, 4th Earl of Chester (1172?–1232), on 3 February, 1188. This marriage was dissolved in 1199 after Constance deserted her husband. She married thirdly Guy of Thouars (d.1213) in 1199 at Angers in Anjou, and had issue:

  1 Alice, Duchess of Brittany and Countess of Richmond (1201–1221); she married Peter of Dreux, Duke of Brittany (1187?–1250), and had issue.

  2 Katherine (b.120
1); she married Andrew de Vitre of Brittany.

 
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