Eleanor of Aquitaine: By the Wrath of God, Queen of England by Alison Weir


  Stubbs, William. The Early Plantagenets (London, 1903).

  Stubbs, William. Historical Introduction to the Rolls Series (London, 1902).

  Swinburne, Algernon Charles. The Tragedies, Vol. 1 (London, 1905).

  Tennyson, Alfred, Lord. The Life and Works of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Vol. 11 (London, 1899).

  Thomas, Antoine. Bertran van Born, poesies completes (Toulouse, 1888).

  Treece, Henry. The Crusades (New York, 1964).

  Turner, Ralph V. "Eleanor of Aquitaine and her Children: An Inquiry into Mediaeval Family Attachment" (Journal of Mediaeval History 14, 1988).

  Vaissete, Joseph. Abrege de I'histoire generale de Languedoc (5 vols., Paris, 1799).

  Waddell, Helen. 77ie Wandering Scholars (London, 1954).

  Walker, Curtis. Eleanor of Aquitaine (Richmond, Virginia, 1950).

  Ward, P. L. "The Coronation Ceremony in Mediaeval England" (Speculum 14, 1939).

  Warren, W. L. Henry II (London, 1973).

  373

  Warren, W. L. King John (London, 1961).

  Webb, G. "Fontevrault" (Life of the Spirit, January 1962).

  Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, 1989).

  White, Freda. Ways of Aquitaine (London, 1968).

  Winston, Richard. Becket (London, 1967).

  Women and Power in the Middle Ages (ed. M. Erler and M. Kowaleski, Athens, Georgia, 1988).

  374

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  375

  Notes and References

  l "Opulent Aquitaine"

  1. Chroniques des eglises d'Anjou.

  2 . For the history of the Counts of Poitou and Dukes of Aquitaine, and in particular for the life of William IX, see Ordericus Vitalis; see also Alfred Richard, Histoire des dues et des comtes de Poitou, which draws heavily on original sources (hereafter referred to as Richard).

  3. Gervase of Canterbury.

  4. Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou.

  5. William of Malmesbury.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Ordericus Vitalis.

  8. Thanks to the endowments of wealthy benefactors, d'Arbrissel was able to establish daughter-houses and -cells elsewhere.

  9. William of Malmesbury.

  10. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  11. William of Malmesbury.

  12. Ibid.

  13. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  14. Ralph of Diceto claims that he waged war on William IX for seven years, but dates his rebellion to 1112, before the Duke had even met Dangerosa. His evidence is therefore unreliable.

  15. Geoffrey de Vigeois.

  16. Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters.

  17. Bernard of Clairvaux, Epistolae.

  18. Richard le Poitevin.

  19. For William X's will and death, see Ordericus Vitalis.

  20. Ordericus Vitalis; Suger, Vie de Louis VI.

  21. Suger.

  376

  2 "A Model of Virtue"

  1. The surname Capet, which probably means "cap-wearer" or "cape-wearer," was not used for Hugh until the thirteenth century, and the dynasty he founded was not described as Capetian until the eighteenth century.

  2. Suger; Richard.

  3. Suger.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Walter Map.

  7. Suger; he is the chief source for the early life of Louis VII.

  8. Suger.

  9. Geoffrey de Vigeois.

  10. Ibid.

  11. Suger.

  12. Ibid. Geoffrey de Vigeois; Richard.

  13. La chronique de Marigny, Chronicle of Montierneuf Abbey.

  14. Chronique de Touraine.

  15. Suger; Richard; Chronique de Touraine.

  16 . Suger; Richard.

  17. Ordericus Vitalis.

  18. Ibid.

  19. Ibid.

  20. Richard.

  21. Guy de Bazoches, Eloge de Paris (quoted in Amy Kelly, "Eleanor of Aquitaine").

  22. Stephen of Paris, chronicler; Giraldus Cambrensis.

  23. Richard.

  24. Ibid.

  25. When he joined the order in 1113, it had one house; thanks to his inspirational teaching and international prestige, by the time of his death in 1153 there were 350, and thousands had followed him into their cloisters.

  26. For this episode, see Suger.

  3 "Counsel of the Devil"

  1. For the Toulouse campaign, see Ordericus Vitalis.

  2. For the summer in Poitou, see Richard.

  3. Historia Francorum (in Receuil des historiens des Gaules et de la France); Chron-ico Mauriniacensi.

  4. Historia Francorum.

  5. For the holocaust at Vitry, see Historia Francorum.

  6. Receuil des historiens.

  7. Ibid.

  8. F. A. Gervaise, Histoire de Suger.

  9. Ibid.; Suger.

  377

  10. Ibid.

  11. Vita Tertia, fragments of a life of Bernard of Clairvaux by Galfredas Claras Vallensis (in Patrologiae Latinae, ed. Migne).

  12. Ibid. Migne cites several other contemporary accounts of this meeting, but all are thirdhand and vary slightly in detail.

  13. Odo de Deuil.

  14. William of Tyre.

  15. Ibid.

  16. Odo de Deuil.

  17. Ibid.

  18. Ibid.; see also La chronique de Marigny.

  19. Suger.

  20. Odo de Deuil.

  21. Ibid.

  22. It had been by no means unusual for women to accompany their husbands on the First Crusade, and there is no contemporary evidence that Eleanor's decision provoked adverse comment. It was only fifty years later, when Eleanor's reputation had suffered, that chroniclers such as William of Newburgh asserted that the motives of these female crusaders were anything but spiritual; he complained that their presence in the army was disruptive and attracted women of dubious morals, who diverted many of the men from their holy purpose. "In that Christian camp, where chastity should have prevailed, a horde of women was milling about. This in particular brought scandal upon our army." (William of Newburgh)

  23. Bibliotheque des croisades.

  24. This tale is repeated as fact by many later writers, notably de Larry, Histoire d'Eleonor de Guyenne; Michaud, A History of the Crusades; and Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England.

  25. Niketas Choniates (see Chapter 4).

  26. Odo de Deuil.

  27. Chronique des eglises d'Anjou.

  28. Odo de Deuil.

  29. Ibid.

  30. John of Salisbury, Historia Pontijicalis.

  31. She had made a similar arrangement with other abbeys, notably those at Montierneuf and La Grace-Dieu.

  32. Odo de Deuil.

  33. Henry of Huntingdon.

  4 "To Jerusalem!"

  1. Gestes de Louis VII (in Bibliotheque des Croisades).

  2. Odo de Deuil.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Ibid.

  378

  6. Ibid.

  7. Ibid.; William of Tyre.

  8. Odo de Deuil.

  9. Ibid.

  10. Ibid.

  11. William of Tyre.

  12. Odo de Deuil.

  13. William of Tyre.

  14. Ibid.

  15. Ibid.

  16. Ibid.

  17. Ibid.; Odo de Deuil.

  18. The chief sources for this episode and its aftermath are William of Tyre, Odo de Deuil, and the Gestes de Louis VII (see note 1).

  19. Odo de Deuil; Guillaume de Nangis.

  20. Odo de Deuil.

  21. Ibid.

  22. William of Tyre.

  23. For descriptions of Antioch, see William of Tyre and Fulcher of Chartres.

  24. William of Tyre.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Ibid.

  27. Ibid.

  28. John of Salisbury; his account of the rift between Louis and Eleanor appears in his Historia Pontificalis, written in the 1160s. All his subsequent quotations in
this chapter are taken from this work.

  29. William of Tyre.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Quoted in Harvey, The Troubadour Marcabru and Love.

  32. John of Salisbury.

  33. Ibid.

  34. Ibid.

  35. Guillaume de Nangis.

  36. John of Salisbury; William of Newburgh; Suger.

  37. John of Salisbury.

  38. Ibid.

  39. Ibid.

  40. Ibid.

  41. Ibid.

  42. His letter is lost, but its contents may be inferred from Suger's reply, which is printed in Receuil des historiens.

  43. William of Tyre.

  44. For Louis's reception in Jerusalem, see William of Tyre and the Chronique de Saint-Denis (in Receuil des historiens).

  45. William of Tyre.

  46. Henry of Huntingdon.

  379

  47. William of Tyre.

  48. Ibid.

  49. John of Salisbury.

  50. For this episode, see John of Salisbury, Guillaume de Nangis, and a letter from Louis to Suger in Receuil des historiens.

  51. William of Tyre.

  52. Letter in Receuil des historiens.

  53. John of Salisbury.

  54. Ibid.

  55. This is inferred from the fact that the Pope made them share a bed (see the following paragraph). Some writers assert that Eleanor was pregnant when she arrived in Tusculum, but this is highly unlikely.

  56. John of Salisbury.

  57. Ibid.

  58. Ibid, (all quotes).

  59. Ibid.

  60. Gervaise, Histoire de Suger.

  5 "A Righteous Annulment"

  1. Ralph of Coggeshall; Ralph of Diceto.

  2. Gervase of Canterbury.

  3. William of Newburgh.

  4. The dating is inferred from the fact that sexual relations between Louis and Eleanor were resumed in October 1149.

  5. Chronique de Saint-Denis (in Receuil des historiens).

  6. Matthew Paris.

  7. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  8. Ibid.

  9. The palace of the Plantagenets at Angers was demolished in the reign of Louis IX of France and rebuilt in 1228-1230.

  10. The chief sources for the history of the counts of Anjou are the Chronicles (or the Deeds) of the counts of Anjou (Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou), which exists in several versions and was compiled in the twelfth century by various writers, among them Odo, Abbot of Marmoutier in the Loire Valley, and Thomas of Loches, who flourished around 1130. John, a monk of Marmoutier, wrote a new version of the chronicle in 1164-1173; it includes a laudatory life of Count Geoffrey the Fair and was dedicated to Geoffreys son, Henry II of England, who was patron of the abbey of Marmoutier. The Chronicle recounts the history of the counts of Anjou from the tenth to the twelfth centuries, and is a mixture of fact and myth: most of the passages dealing with the early counts are based on legend.

  11. Ibid.

  12. Ibid.

  13. Ibid.; abridged from John of Marmoutier.

  380

  14. Ralph of Diceto.

  15. His work is now lost.

  16. William of Malmesbury.

  17. Gesta Stephani.

  18. Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou.

  19. Ibid.

  20. William of Conches, Dragmaticon, dedicated to Geoffrey of Anjou.

  21. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  22. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

  23. Walter Map.

  24. Ibid.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Ibid.

  27. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  28. Gervase of Canterbury. Master Matthew may perhaps be identified with Henrys future chancellor and Bishop of Angers.

  29. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  30. Walter Map.

  31. Henry of Huntingdon.

  32. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  33. Walter Map.

  34. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Henry of Huntingdon.

  37. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  38. Henry of Huntingdon.

  39. Peter of Blois.

  40. Ralph Niger.

  41. Ibid.

  42. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  43. Peter of Blois.

  44. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  45. Walter Map.

  46. Ibid.

  47. Robert of Torigni.

  48. During the tenth century the Vexin had been partitioned: the northern part, with the city and castle of Gisors, was absorbed into Normandy, and the southern area became part of France. Ever since then, the Norman Vexin had been a bone of contention between the kings of France and the dukes of Normandy.

  49. Robert of Torigni.

  50. Ibid.

  51. John of Marmoutier.

  52. Robert of Torigni.

  53. John of Marmoutier. The enamel plaque is now in the municipal museum at Le Mans. The inscription translates as: "By your sword, Seigneur, the

  381

  troop of brigands has been put to flight, and through the restoration of peace, repose given to the Church."

  54. Chronique de Touraine; Geoffrey of Vigeois; Guillaume de Nangis; Richard.

  55. See, for example, Helinand of Froidmont, poet and chronicler at the court of Philip II of France (his Chronicon is in Patrologiae Latinae); also the Minstrel of RJaeims and later sources quoted by Pacaut.

  56. Bouchet, Les annales d'Aquitaine.

  6 "A Happy Issue"

  1. Chronique'de Touraine.

  2. Ibid.

  3. Gervase of Canterbury.

  4. Chronique de Touraine; Gervase of Canterbury; Robert of Torigni; William of Newburgh.

  5. Richard.

  6. Cf. Richard of Devizes, who called her "a common English whore who scorned no filthiness."

  7. His tomb effigy may still be seen in Salisbury Cathedral.

  8. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  9. Gervase of Canterbury.

  10. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  11. Robert of Torigni.

  12. Ibid.

  13. Ibid.

  14. Ibid.; Gesta Stephani; Gervase of Canterbury.

  15. Robert of Torigni.

  16. Richard.

  17. Ibid.

  18. Ibid.

  19. This biography was by Uc of Saint-Circ, who is quoted in Choix des poesies originales des troubadours, ed. Raynouard; see also Bernard von Ventadour, seine Lieder, ed. Appel; Florilege des troubadours, ed. Berry; Carducci, In poeta d'amore nel secolo XII; and Anthology of the Provencal Troubadours, ed. Hill and Bergin.

  20. Henry of Huntingdon.

  21. Ibid.

  22. Gesta Stephani.

  23. Gervase of Canterbury.

  24. Ibid.; Robert of Torigni.

  25. Ralph of Diceto.

  26. William, who had secured the rich earldom of Surrey by marrying the heiress Isabella de Warenne, had taken no part in the civil war, nor expressed any desire to become king.

  27. Robert of Torigni.

  28. English Historical Documents.

  382

  29. Henry of Huntingdon.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Walter Map.

  32. His reign would not officially begin until the day of his coronation. Until then he would be styled dominus, or the Lord Henry. As was customary in early mediaeval times, his regnal years would be dated from the day of his coronation.

  33. Henry of Huntingdon.

  34. Robert of Torigni.

  35. Choix des poesies originates des troubadours, ed. Raynouard; Boutiere and Schutz, Biographies des troubadours.

  36. Les origines ... de la litteraire courtoise, ed. Bezzola.

  37. Henry of Huntingdon.

  38. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

  39. Ralph of Diceto.

  40. Henry of Huntingdon.

  41. Ibid.

  42. Gervase of Canterbury.

  43. The Chronicon of Battle Abbey.

  44. Gervase of Canterbury.

  45. Henry of Huntingdon; for the
coronation, see also Gervase of Canterbury, Robert of Torigni, and William of Newburgh.

  46. Henry of Huntingdon.

  47. Ibid.

  48. William of Newburgh.

  7 "All the Business of the Kingdom"

  1. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

  2. It was only in the thirteenth century, with the growing concept of chivalry, that they began to be better regulated and governed by an ever-stricter code of etiquette. It was for the identification of participants at tournaments that the code of heraldry developed in the late twelfth century.

  3. Richard FitzNigel.

  4. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  5. Walter Map.

  6. Ibid.

  7. William of Malmesbury.

  8. Roger of Hoveden.

  9. Peter of Blois.

  8 "Eleanor, by the Grace of God, Queen of England"

  1. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

  2. William of Newburgh.

  3. Ibid.

  383

  4. Ibid.

  5. Walter Map.

  6. William of Newburgh.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Pipe Rolls.

  9. Richard FitzNigel.

  10. Adam of Eynsham.

  11. Walter Map.

  12. Ibid.

  13. Adam of Eynsham.

  14. William of Newburgh.

  15. Rotuli Curiae Regis (ed. F. Palgrave, Records Commissioners, 1835).

  16. Peter of Blois.

  17. Ralph of Diceto.

  18. William of Newburgh.

  19. Ralph of Diceto.

  20. Ibid.

  21. Peter of Blois.

  22. Translation by Owen in Eleanor of Aquitaine.

  23. Pipe Rolls.

  24. Court, Household and Itinerary of King Henry II.

  25. Peter of Blois.

  26. Layamon.

  27. See Owen, Eleanor of Aquitaine.

  28. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  29. Ibid.

  30. Ibid. Although the tomb was destroyed and the bones dispersed during the Reformation, the site is still marked in the abbey ruins.

  31. Peter of Blois.

  32. Ibid.

  33. Ibid.

  34. Ibid. 35- Ibid.

  36. Constitutio Domus Regis (see C. Johnson, "The System of Account in the Wardrobe of Edward I" (Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th series, 6, 1923).

  37. Court, Household and Itinerary; The Red Book of the Exchequer.

  38. Ibid.

 
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