Eleanor of Aquitaine: By the Wrath of God, Queen of England by Alison Weir

58. Roger of Hoveden.

  59. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  60. Gervase of Canterbury.

  61. Ralph of Diceto.

  62. Ibid.

  63. Ibid.; Roger of Hoveden; Gervase of Canterbury.

  64. Ralph of Diceto.

  65. For the rising in Aquitaine, see Roger of Hoveden and Geoffrey of Vigeois.

  66. Roger of Hoveden.

  67. Gervase of Canterbury.

  68. Geoffrey of Vigeois.

  69. Walter Map.

  70. Roger of Hoveden; Patrologiae Latinae.

  71. Walter Map; Geoffrey of Vigeois.

  72. Roger of Hoveden.

  73. Ralph of Diceto.

  74. Geoffrey of Vigeois.

  75. Ibid.

  76. Geoffrey of Vigeois is the principal source for the Young King's death.

  77. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  78. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  79. William of Newburgh.

  80. Geoffrey of Vigeois.

  81. Roger of Hoveden.

  82. Ralph of Diceto.

  83. Ibid.

  84. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  85. Poedera, Conventiones.

  86. Gesta Henrici Secundi.

  87. Ralph of Diceto.

  88. Roger of Hoveden.

  89. Ralph of Diceto.

  15 "Shame, Shame on a Conquered King!"

  1. William of Newburgh.

  2. Roger of Hoveden.

  3. Gervase of Canterbury asserts that Eleanor was released in 1185 at the instance of Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury, but this is at variance with other sources, which confirm that she was set at liberty in 1183.

  4. Roger of Hoveden.

  5. Gervase of Canterbury.

  6. Chronique de Saint-Denis.

  394

  7. When his tomb in Worcester Cathedral was opened in 1797, John's skeleton was found to measure five feet five inches.

  8. Richard of Devizes.

  9. The Chronicle of Meaux.

  10. William of Newburgh.

  11. Ralph of Diceto.

  12. Matthew Paris.

  13. Roger of Wendover; Matthew Paris.

  14. Matthew Paris.

  15. Roger of Hoveden.

  16. Ibid.

  17. The Chronicle of Meaux.

  18. Roger of Hoveden.

  19. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  20. Pipe Rolls.

  21. Ralph of Diceto.

  22. Ibid.

  23. Pipe Rolls.

  24. Ibid.

  25. Roger of Hoveden; Geoffrey of Vigeois.

  26. Roger of Hoveden.

  27. Her birth date is given as 1184 or 1186, but 1184 is the date accepted by most historians.

  28. Roger of Hoveden.

  29. Henry also declined to accept the crown of Jerusalem for himself.

  30. Roger of Hoveden.

  31. It would be rebuilt in the Gothic style by Bishop Hugh of Avalon from 1192.

  32. Gesta Henrici Secundi; Roger of Hoveden.

  33. Roger of Hoveden.

  34. Gesta Henrici Secundi.

  35. Roger of Hoveden.

  36. William of Newburgh.

  37. Ibid.

  38. Ralph of Diceto.

  39. Roger of Hoveden; Ralph of Diceto.

  40. Ralph of Diceto.

  41. Gesta Henrici Secundi; Giraldus Cambrensis.

  42. Ralph of Diceto.

  43. William of Newburgh.

  44. Giraldus Cambrensis; Ralph of Diceto.

  45. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  46. Pipe Rolls.

  47. William of Newburgh.

  48. Ralph of Diceto.

  49. Ibid.

  50. Roger of Hoveden.

  395

  51. Ibid.

  52. Ralph of Diceto.

  53. Ibid.

  54. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  55. Ralph of Diceto.

  56. This is inferred from Gervase of Canterbury's statement that she was released from prison on Henry's death, and from references in the Pipe Rolls that suggest she stayed at Winchester for long periods towards the end of the reign.

  57. Ralph of Diceto.

  58. Gervase of Canterbury.

  59. Ralph of Diceto.

  60. Ibid.

  61. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Markchale.

  62. Guillaume le Breton.

  63. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  64. Ibid.; Giraldus Cambrensis.

  65. Ibid.

  66. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  67. Giraldus Cambrensis; Roger of Hoveden; Roger of Wendover.

  68. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  69. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  70. Ibid.

  71. Ibid.

  72. Ibid.

  73. Roger of Hoveden.

  74. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  75. William of Newburgh.

  76. Roger of Hoveden; Gesta Henrici Secundi; Giraldus Cambrensis.

  77. Gervase of Canterbury.

  78. William of Newburgh.

  16 "The Eagle Shall Rejoice in Her Third Nesting"

  1. Itinerary of Richard I.

  2. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  3. Ingulfs Chronicles of the Abbey of Croyland (trans. H. T. Riley, 1854).

  4. L'Histoire de Guillaume de Marechale.

  5. Ralph of Diceto; Gervase of Canterbury.

  6. Ralph of Diceto.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Gesta Regis Ricardi.

  9. Roger of Hoveden.

  10. Roger of Wendover.

  11. Roger of Hoveden; Ralph of Diceto.

  12. The English coinage had hitherto been subject to regional variations.

  396

  13. Roger of Hoveden.

  14. Gesta Regis Ricardi.

  15. Roger of Hoveden.

  16. Ralph of Diceto.

  17. Roger of Hoveden.

  18. Ralph of Diceto.

  19. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  20. Ralph of Diceto.

  21. Ibid.

  22. Glanville later died on crusade.

  23. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  24. Ibid.

  25. Gervase of Canterbury.

  26. Gesta Regis Ricardi.

  27. Roger of Hoveden.

  28. Itinerary of Richard I.

  29. Ibid.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Pipe Rolls.

  32. Itinerary of Richard I.

  33. Roger of Wendover.

  34. Ralph of Diceto.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Roger of Hoveden states it was 100,000 marks, but the Gesta Regis Ricardi claims that it was as much as 900,000.

  37. Gesta Regis Ricardi.

  38. Richard of Devizes; William of Newburgh.

  39. Joscelin of Brakelond.

  40. Ralph of Diceto.

  41. Roger of Hoveden.

  42. William of Newburgh.

  43. Richard.

  44. Ibid.

  45. One charter was to the Abbey of Fontevrault, "for the repose of Henry's soul," while the rest conferred endowments upon other religious houses and the Knights Hospitallers of the Priory of France, in return for prayers for a successful outcome to the crusade and the safe return of King Richard. Eleanor also witnessed a judgement given by Payne de Rupefort, Seneschal of Anjou, in favour of the Abbess of Fontevrault in a dispute with the Mayor of Saumur over "local rights."

  46. Richard of Devizes; Ambrose; Itinerary of Richard I; Richard.

  47. This should read "daughters," since Berengaria's father Sancho VI did not die until 1194.

  48. Quoted in Mitchell, Berengaria, Enigmatic Queen of England.

  49. Roger of Hoveden; Itinerary of Richard I.

  50. Ambrose.

  397

  17 "The Admiration of Her Age"

  1. Roger of Hoveden; Itinerary of Richard I.

  2. The date of her death is not recorded, but is presumed to have been during or after 1230, when she i
s last mentioned in the records.

  3. Most other reports of her beauty are found in the works of later chroniclers, viz. Ranulf Higden, Piers Langtoft, Walter of Guisborough, and Henry Knighton.

  4. Richard of Devizes.

  5. Ralph of Diceto; Roger of Hoveden.

  6. Peter of Blois.

  7. Ralph of Diceto.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Roger of Hoveden.

  10. Roger of Wendover.

  11. Ralph of Diceto; Richard of Devizes.

  12. Itinerary of Richard I.

  13. Richard of Devizes.

  14. Roger of Hoveden.

  15. Ralph of Diceto.

  16. Roger of Hoveden.

  17. Giraldus Cambrensis; Roger of Hoveden; Piers Langtoft.

  18. Piers Langtoft.

  19. Roger of Hoveden.

  20. Philip's position is made clear in a sirvente by Bertran de Born entitled "S'ieufos aissi."

  21. Roger of Hoveden; The Chronicle of Meaux; Giraldus Cambrensis.

  22. Roger of Hoveden.

  23. Ibid.; Ralph of Diceto; Itinerary of Richard I.

  24. Ralph of Diceto.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Roger of Hoveden.

  27. Ibid.; Richard.

  28. Roger of Hoveden; Ralph of Diceto; Itinerary of Richard I.

  29. Pipe Rolls; Itinerary of Richard I.

  30. The chapel may still be visited today, along with various other sites connected with Richard and Berengaria in Cyprus, among them the ruined Berengaria Tower (of which the royal couple laid the foundations) on the outskirts of Kolossi, and Little Berengaria Village near Pannicon, north of Limassol.

  31. Geoffrey de Vinsauf, The Art of Poetry (quoted in Mitchell, Berengaria, Enigmatic Queen of England). Vinsauf was a loyal subject and companion of Richard I.

  32. Ambrose.

  33. Gervase of Canterbury.

  34. Roger of Hoveden.

  398

  35. Some modern writers claim that the horror Berengaria felt on witnessing the massacre caused her to miscarry, but I can find no contemporary evidence for this.

  36. Gesta Henrici Secundi.

  37. Richard of Devizes.

  38. William of Newburgh.

  39. Ibid.

  40. Ibid.

  41. For this episode, see Giraldus Cambrensis; Roger of Hoveden; William of Newburgh.

  42. William of Newburgh.

  43. Roger of Hoveden.

  44. Richard of Devizes.

  45. Roger of Hoveden.

  46. Richard of Devizes.

  47. William of Newburgh.

  48. Roger of Hoveden; Richard of Devizes.

  49. Richard of Devizes.

  50. Ibid.

  51. Roger of Hoveden; Gervase of Canterbury; Roger of Wendover; Guillaume le Breton; William of Newburgh; Rigord.

  52. Bertran de Born (see note 20 above) makes it clear that Philips sense of honour required him to avenge the slight to his sister.

  53. Roger of Hoveden.

  54. Ibid.

  55. Ibid.

  56. Richard of Devizes.

  57. Ibid.

  58. Roger of Hoveden.

  59. Richard of Devizes.

  60. Roger of Hoveden.

  61. Richard of Devizes.

  62. Ibid.

  63. Ibid.

  64. Charter Rolls.

  65. Richard of Devizes.

  66. Ibid.

  67. Giraldus Cambrensis; Roger of Hoveden.

  68. Richard of Devizes.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Ibid.

  71. Ibid.

  72. Ibid.

  73. Ralph of Diceto.

  74. Ambrose.

  75. Gervase of Canterbury; Roger of Hoveden.

  399

  76. Roger of Hoveden.

  77. Ibid.

  18 "The Devil Is Loosed!"

  1. Letter from Henry VI to Philip II, quoted by Roger of Hoveden.

  2. Ibid.

  3. Ibid. For Richard's adventures and capture, see also the account of his chaplain Anselm, in Ralph of Coggeshall.

  4. Letter of Henry VI to Philip II, quoted by Roger of Hoveden.

  5. Ibid.

  6. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  7. For Eleanor's state of mind, see the letters to the Pope quoted later in this chapter (Foedera; Richard).

  8. Roger of Hoveden.

  9. Ibid.

  10. Foedera; Richard.

  11. Roger of Hoveden.

  12. Matthew Paris.

  13. William of Newburgh; L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  14. Ibid.

  15. Ralph of Diceto.

  16. Roger of Hoveden.

  17. Ralph of Diceto.

  18. William of Newburgh.

  19. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  20. Ralph of Diceto.

  21. William of Newburgh.

  22. Ralph of Diceto.

  23. Roger of Hoveden.

  24. Ralph of Diceto.

  25. William of Newburgh.

  26. I have omitted repetitious passages and some of those citing scripture.

  27. Some historians erroneously translate this as "Chateauroux," but it is clear that the Latin reference to the Castle of Ralph refers to the Castello Radulphi, where Eleanor had met the Pope during her visit to Rome in 1191. There is no record of her ever having met Celestine at Chateauroux. The Castle of Ralph is also mentioned (in a passage not quoted in this text) in her second letter to the Pope, where it is obvious that the Roman palace is being referred to.

  28. Foedera; Richard.

  29. Rigord.

  30. Roger of Hoveden.

  31. Ibid.

  32. Gervase of Canterbury.

  33. This is sometimes taken as the first of the three letters, but the explanatory

  400

  detail in the first, and the angrier salutation in this, strongly suggest that it was the second.

  34. This was an exaggeration, as Louis VII had already given Alexander III his support. Eleanor had not been present when these matters were discussed by Louis and Henry II.

  35. Foedera; Richard.

  36. A mark was not a coin but a unit of account equivalent to 120 silver pennies or 8 oz. of silver.

  37. Roger of Hoveden.

  38. Ralph of Diceto.

  39. William of Newburgh.

  40. Roger of Hoveden.

  41. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  42. Ralph of Diceto; Roger of Hoveden.

  43. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  44. Roger of Hoveden.

  45. William of Newburgh.

  46. Ralph of Diceto; Annals of Margam.

  47. Chroniques de St Martial.

  48. Roger of Hoveden.

  49. Foedera; Richard.

  50. Roger of Hoveden.

  51. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  52. Roger of Hoveden.

  53. Ibid.; L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  54. William of Newburgh.

  55. Roger of Hoveden.

  56. Ibid.

  57. Ibid.

  58. William of Newburgh.

  59. Roger of Hoveden.

  60. Letter from Walter of Coutances to Ralph of Diceto; Roger of Hoveden.

  61. Ibid.

  62. Roger of Hoveden.

  63. Letter from Walter of Coutances to Ralph of Diceto.

  64. Roger of Hoveden.

  65. Ibid.

  66. Ralph of Diceto.

  67. Gervase of Canterbury.

  68. Roger of Hoveden.

  69. Ralph of Diceto; Roger of Hoveden.

  70. Roger of Hoveden.

  71. William of Newburgh; he refers to this port as "Sweyne."

  72. Roger of Hoveden; Ralph of Coggeshall.

  73. Ralph of Diceto; Gervase of Canterbury.

  74. Roger of Wendover.

  401

  75. William of Newburgh.

  76. Roger of Hoveden.

  77. Ralph of Diceto.

  78. Ibid.

  79. Roger of
Wendover.

  80. Gervase of Canterbury.

  81. Now a ruin known as King John's Palace.

  82. Itinerary of Richard I.

  83. Roger of Hoveden.

  84. William of Newburgh.

  85. Ralph of Diceto.

  86. Roger of Hoveden; for this ceremony, see also Gervase of Canterbury and L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  87. Gervase of Canterbury.

  88. Roger of Hoveden.

  89. Pipe Rolls.

  90. Roger of Hoveden.

  19. "The Staff of My Old Age"

  1. Gervase of Canterbury; L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  2. L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  3. Ralph of Diceto; Roger of Wendover.

  4. Roger of Hoveden.

  5. Ralph of Diceto.

  6. For this episode, see L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechale.

  7. Roger of Hoveden.

  8. Pipe Rolls; Richardson, The Letters and Charters of Eleanor of Aquitaine.

  9. Pipe Rolls.

  10. Calendar of Documents, ed. Round.

  11. Giraldus Cambrensis.

  12. Adam of Eynsham.

  13. Roger of Hoveden.

  14. Oxford Etymological Dictionary.

  15. Rigord.

  16. Roger of Hoveden.

  17. See Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, by Gerard J. Brault (Oxford, 1972); also A European Armorial, ed. Rosemary Pinches and Anthony Wood (Heraldry Today, 1971), Armorial Bearings of the Sovereigns of England by William Petchey (London, 1977), Royal Beasts by H. Stanford London (The Heraldry Society, East Knoyle, 1956), European Civic Coats of Arms by Jiri Louda (London, 1966), and The Oxford Guide to Heraldry by Thomas Woodcock and John Martin Robinson (Oxford, 1988), among many other authorities. See also Nurith Kenaan-Kedar, Alienor d'Aquitaine conduite en captivite: Les peintures commemoratives de Sainte-Radegonde de Chinon (Cahiers de civilisation medievale, University of Poitiers, December 1998).

  402

  18. His name is subject to dispute: Gervase of Canterbury calls him John Sabroz, while Ralph of Diceto calls him Peter Basili.

  19. Roger of Hoveden.

  20. Ibid.

  21. Annales Monastici, ed. Luard.

  22. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  23. Calendar of Documents, ed. Round; Itinerary of Richard I.

  24. Ralph of Coggeshall.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Ibid.; Ralph of Diceto.

  27. Charter of Queen Eleanor to the Abbey of Our Lady of Turpenay.

  28. Adam of Eynsham.

  29. Ibid.

  30. Ralph of Diceto.

  31. Roger of Wendover.

  20 "The Most Reverend Eleanor"

 
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