Elizabeth of York: A Tudor Queen and Her World by Alison Weir


  9. According to a near-contemporary pedigree roll drawn up for the family of Margaret of Clarence, Warwick’s sister; see Philip Morgan: “Those were the days: a Yorkist pedigree roll,” in Estrangement, Enterprise and Education in Fifteenth-Century England; Jones: Psychology of a Battle: Bosworth, 1485.

  10. Original Letters Illustrative of English History

  11. Croyland Chronicle

  12. Ibid.

  13. Ross: Wars of the Roses

  14. Ibid.

  15. Croyland Chronicle

  16. Most writers follow Kendall: Richard the Third, although he cites no source for this date.

  17. Croyland Chronicle

  18. Ibid.

  19. Hall

  20. Vergil

  21. Croyland Chronicle

  22. Ibid.

  23. Ibid.; Vergil

  24. Vergil is the only source to state it was Lord Stanley who retrieved the crown; the Great Chronicle of London states that it was Sir William Stanley. After Sir William’s execution for treason in 1495, Vergil may have deemed it politic to assert that it was his brother.

  25. Vergil; Hall

  26. Vergil

  27. Harleian MS. 542

  28. Croyland Chronicle

  29. Rous

  30. HVIIPPE

  31. Ashdown-Hill: The Fate of Richard III’s Body; Pidgeon; Baldwin: King Richard’s Grave in Leicester; Billson

  32. Bacon; Francis Drake, in Eboracum, says that Halewell is mentioned in one of the warrants.

  33. Vergil

  34. Bacon

  35. Vergil

  36. Bacon

  37. Ibid.

  38. Laynesmith

  39. Warrant of February 24, 1486, in Exchequer Records E.404/79

  40. Godfrey and Wagner; Kingsford: “Historical Notes on Mediaeval London Houses.” Coldharbour was burned down in 1666 during the Great Fire of London.

  7: “OUR BRIDAL TORCH”

  1. Chrimes; Professor Eric Ives, in conversation with the author, May 2012.

  2. Calendar of Papal Registers. Henry’s great-grandfather, John Beaufort, was the brother of Elizabeth’s great-grandmother, Joan Beaufort.

  3. Hicks: Anne Neville; Peter Clarke: “English Royal Marriages and the Papal Penitentiary in the Fifteenth Century”

  4. Rastell

  5. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  6. Bacon

  7. Ross: Wars of the Roses

  8. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  9. Bacon

  10. CSP Spain

  11. Vergil

  12. Hall

  13. Gristwood; Jones and Underwood

  14. Calendar of Papal Registers

  15. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  16. Rutland Papers

  17. Fisher: Funeral Sermon

  18. Croyland Chronicle

  19. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  20. CSP Spain

  21. Buck

  22. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  23. Anglo: Spectacle, Pageantry and Early Tudor Policy

  24. In his dispensation of 1486 (Foedera)—see Chapter 9.

  25. Leland: Collectanea

  26. Popular Songs of Ireland

  27. Mancini

  28. Bacon

  29. Ibid.

  30. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  31. Dockray: Richard III: Myth and Reality

  32. Bacon

  33. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  34. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  35. Vergil

  36. Hall

  37. Challis; Anglo: Images of Tudor Kingship

  38. Mackie

  39. Bacon

  40. Calendar of Papal Registers

  41. Weightman; Vaughan; Wiesflacker

  42. Harleian MS. 336, in Leland: Collectanea. Gigli was rewarded with a prebendary stall in York; he would serve Henry VII as ambassador to Rome and become Bishop of Worcester (Tournoy-Thouen; Dixon).

  43. Calendar of Papal Registers, January 1486

  44. PPE

  45. Croyland Chronicle

  46. Rotuli Parliamentorum; Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; André

  47. Mutilated document in Cotton MS. Cleopatra

  48. Calendar of Papal Registers

  49. Ibid.

  50. Ibid.

  51. Hall

  52. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  53. André

  54. CSP Venice

  55. Calendar of Papal Registers

  56. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  57. Shears

  58. Calendar of Papal Registers

  59. Ibid.; Loades: Mary Rose

  60. Bacon; Croyland also gives the date as January 18.

  61. André

  62. Mutilated document in Cotton MS. Cleopatra

  63. Croyland Chronicle

  64. Meerson

  65. Arch and Marschner

  66. Harleian MS. 336, in Leland: Collectanea

  67. Okerlund: Elizabeth of York; Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  68. Bacon

  69. Ibid.

  70. Harleian MS. 336, in Leland Collectanea

  71. Cambridge University Library Dd. 13.27, f. 31; Strickland

  72. Hawes: A Joyful Meditation

  73. Stuart Royal Proclamations

  74. Kohler; Francis Perry; http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/

  75. All cited by Wroe

  76. York Civic Records

  77. Cited by Hilliam

  78. Anglo: Images of Tudor Kingship

  8: “IN BLEST WEDLOCK”

  1. Woolgar

  2. Harris

  3. Laynesmith

  4. Sandford; Laynesmith

  5. Great Chronicle of London; Hall; Hayward

  6. Hayward

  7. CSP Venice

  8. So called after the ceiling decoration in the room at the Palace of Westminster where it was held.

  9. Exchequer Records E.101

  10. Bacon

  11. CSP Venice

  12. CSP Spain

  13. Cunningham: Henry VII

  14. Erasmus: The Epistles of Erasmus; Bacon

  15. Gothic. The book of hours is in the Devonshire Collection at Chatsworth House.

  16. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  17. CSP Spain

  18. Jones and Underwood; Laynesmith; Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII; Searle

  19. Vickers, in his edition of Bacon

  20. Bacon

  21. HVIIPPE

  22. Memorials of King Henry VII

  23. Milne. He offers good evidence that Velville was Henry’s son.

  24. CSP Spain

  25. Four English Political Tracts of the Later Middle Ages

  26. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

  27. Cessolis

  28. Norton: She Wolves

  29. Paston Letters

  30. Shears

  31. PPE

  32. Loades: Tudor Queens

  33. Paston Letters. John Paston was knighted at the Battle of Stoke in June 1487, so the letters must have been written after that date, as he is referred to as Sir John in both of them. Daubeney, whose letter was written on the Saturday before St. Lawrence’s Day, August 10, refers to Elizabeth having taken to her chamber. Only two of her children were born in the summer: Arthur in 1486, the year before Paston was knighted; and Elizabeth on July 2, 1492. The letters must therefore belong to 1492, when the Queen was still lying in after her confinement, in which case Daubeney’s was written on August 5.

  34. PPE

  35. CSP Spain

  36. PPE

  37. Okerlund: Elizabeth of York; Cloake: “Richmond’s Great Monastery”; Thompson

  38. PPE

  39. Ibid.

  40. The device of Elizabeth Wydeville (Okerlund: Elizabeth of York)

  41. Okerlund, in Elizabeth of York, suggests this is a reference to her bei
ng jilted by the Dauphin.

  42. Additional MS. 5645, ff. 8v-11; Historical Poems of the XIVth and XVth Centuries; Stevens

  43. Cotton MS. Vitellius

  44. CSP Venice

  45. PPE

  46. Calendar of Papal Registers

  47. Cotton MS. Vespasian F XIII, f. 60

  48. Original Letters Illustrative of English History

  49. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain

  50. Harleian MS. 7039

  51. Fisher: Funeral Sermon

  52. Additional MSS.

  53. Fisher: Funeral Sermon

  54. Ibid.

  55. Letters of the Queens of England

  56. Loades: Tudor Queens

  57. CSP Spain

  58. More

  59. Gristwood

  60. Laynesmith

  61. Records of the Borough of Nottingham; Jones and Underwood; City and Spectacle in Medieval Europe

  62. Gristwood

  63. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh. Nothing remains of this chantry chapel today, as the church was mostly rebuilt in the eighteenth century; the only chantry chapel still to survive is that of Sir Richard Weston, the builder of nearby Sutton Place, who probably rose to prominence in the service of Elizabeth of York.

  64. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII

  65. Gristwood; PPE

  66. Collection of Ordinances

  67. Jones and Underwood

  68. In Elizabeth’s lifetime Margaret did not reside at Derby Place, the town residence built by her husband in 1503 on Peter’s Hill, near Baynard’s Castle. It later became the Heralds’ College, but was burned down in the Great Fire of 1666. The present College of Arms occupies the site.

  69. Jones and Underwood

  70. PPE

  71. Collection of Ordinances

  72. The Household of Edward IV

  73. Leland: Collectanea; Collection of Ordinances

  74. CSP Venice. Foreign observers often referred to Henry VII as “His Majesty,” but that style was not adopted in England until the reign of Henry VIII; Henry VII used the traditional style, “His Grace.”

  75. Collection of Ordinances

  76. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; PPE; HVIIPPE

  77. PPE

  78. Ibid.

  79. Ibid.

  80. Additional MS. 50001, f. 22; England in the Fifteenth Century; Sutton and Visser-Fuchs: “A ‘Most Benevolent Queen’ ”; Backhouse: “Illuminated Manuscripts associated with Henry VII”; Gothic; McKendrick, Lowden, and Doyle

  81. Exeter College MS. 47; The Reign of Henry VII from Contemporary Sources

  82. Royal MS. 16, f. II

  83. Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts; Backhouse: “Illuminated Manuscripts associated with Henry VII”

  84. Royal MS. 19B XVI

  85. McKendrick, Lowden, and Doyle

  86. Royal MS. 20D VI

  87. McKendrick, Lowden, and Doyle

  88. Catalogue of Western Manuscripts and Miniatures

  89. Now in the British Library

  90. Jones and Underwood

  91. PPE

  92. Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection. Painter; Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  93. England in the Fifteenth Century

  94. Nicolas: Memoir, in PPE; Additional MS. 17, OX2

  95. CSP Spain

  96. CSP Milan

  97. CSP Venice

  98. CSP Spain

  99. Ibid.

  100. Vergil

  101. “Lamentation,” in More: Complete Works

  102. CSP Spain

  103. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  104. Crawford: “The King’s Burden?”

  105. Loades: Tudor Queens

  106. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  107. Rotuli Parliamentorum; Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII; Crawford: “The King’s Burden?”

  108. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  109. Halsbury’s Laws of England

  110. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII

  111. Myers: Crown, Household and Parliament in Fifteenth-Century England; Laynesmith; Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  112. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  113. Special Collections S.C. 2/172/38, 40; McIntosh; Laynesmith

  114. Additional MS. 46454

  115. PPE

  116. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII; Westminster Abbey Muniments 12172–73 and 12177; PPE; Laynesmith

  117. HVIIPPE; PPE

  118. PPE

  119. “Lamentation,” in More: Complete Works

  120. PPE

  121. HVIIPPE; Exchequer Records E.101/414/6; PPE

  122. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England; PPE

  123. PPE

  124. Ibid.; Laynesmith

  125. PPE

  9: “OFFSPRING OF THE RACE OF KINGS”

  1. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  2. André

  3. Ibid.

  4. Hall

  5. Ibid.

  6. Rowse: Bosworth Field and the Wars of the Roses

  7. Hedley

  8. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Tudor-Craig. The original bull is in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and there are copies in the British Library, the National Archives, and the John Rylands Library; the text is printed in Foedera.

  9. William de Machlin: circular of the Papal Bull, in Tudor Royal Proclamations

  10. Leland: Collectanea

  11. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  12. Hall

  13. Macalpine

  14. Ibid.

  15. Rhoda Edwards; Macalpine; Hall

  16. Victoria County History: Hampshire

  17. Leland: Collectanea. The hall survives, but the interior of the Deanery has been much altered since Elizabeth stayed there.

  18. Ibid.

  19. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  20. Ibid.

  21. Articles ordained by King Henry VII for the Regulation of his Household, in Harleian MS. 642, f. 198–217; Collection of Ordinances; Cotton MS. Julius B XII; Leland: Collectanea

  22. Antiquarian Repertory

  23. Eames; Laynesmith

  24. Antiquarian Repertory

  25. Original Letters Illustrative of English History

  26. Collection of Ordinances

  27. Ibid.

  28. Harleian MS. 642, f. 198–217; Collection of Ordinances; Leland: Collectanea

  29. Leland: Collectanea

  30. Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  31. Collection of Ordinances

  32. Leland: Collectanea; Collection of Ordinances

  33. Collection of Ordinances; Leland: Collectanea

  34. Plague, Poverty, Prayer

  35. England in the Fifteenth Century

  36. Eamonn Duffy; PPE

  37. Plague, Poverty, Prayer

  38. Ibid.

  39. The Beaufort Hours; Leland: Collectanea; McKendrick, Lowden, and Doyle

  40. Hall

  41. Cotton MS. Julius EIV, f. 10v

  42. Hampshire Record Office, 11 M59, B1/211, cited by Jones in Psychology of a Battle: Bosworth, 1485

  43. Leland: Collectanea

  44. Plague, Poverty, Prayer

  45. Bacon

  46. Fuller

  47. Hall

  48. Collection of Ordinances

  49. Leland: Collectanea; Antiquarian Repertory

  50. Collection of Ordinances

  51. Ibid.

  52. Additional MS. 6113, f. 77b; Leland: Collectanea; Collection of Ordinances; the Royal Book in Antiquarian Repertory

  53. Leland: Collectanea

  54. Anthology of Catholi
c Poets

  55. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Anglo; Spectacle, Pageantry and Early Tudor Policy; Doran

  56. Hughes

  57. Additional MSS.

  58. Leland: Collectanea

  59. Harris; Cressy

  60. Leland: Collectanea

  61. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  62. Meaning attire, or a covering, in this case a veil.

  63. Collection of Ordinances; Leland: Collectanea; Parsons

  64. Cited by Hayward

  65. Account of Norroy Herald in Additional MS. 6113; Leland: Collectanea; Liber Regie Capelle; Cressy; Harris; Brigden

  66. Collection of Ordinances; Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Exchequer Records E.404 and E.101; Gristwood; Hayward

  67. Brigden

  68. Collection of Ordinances

  69. Ibid; Leland: Collectanea

  70. Lansdowne MS. 278, f. 26; Crawford: “The Piety of Late-Medieval English Queens.” Elizabeth did not refound the Lady Chapel, as is sometimes asserted.

  71. Licence: Elizabeth of York

  72. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII; Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  73. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  74. Bell

  75. Randerson

  76. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince, citing Leland: Collectanea; Hutchinson: Young Henry

  10: “DAMNABLE CONSPIRACIES”

  1. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  2. Ibid.; Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  3. Account of Norroy Herald in Additional MS. 6113; Collection of Ordinances; PPE

  4. Collection of Ordinances

  5. Vergil

  6. Leland: Collectanea

  7. Cotton MS. Julius, BXII, f. 29

  8. Calendar of Papal Registers

  9. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  10. Foedera

  11. Vergil

  12. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  13. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  14. The site is now occupied by Bermondsey Square and Bermondsey Market.

  15. Bacon

  16. Okerlund: Elizabeth Wydeville

  17. Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  18. For Bermondsey Abbey, see, for example, Okerlund: Elizabeth Wydeville; Edward Clarke

  19. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

 
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