Elizabeth of York: A Tudor Queen and Her World by Alison Weir


  20. Ibid.

  21. Lee states that she entered the convent in 1490, when her mother entered Bermondsey, but that had been in 1487.

  22. More

  23. “Friaries: The Dominican nuns of Dartford”; Lee; C.F.R. Palmer

  24. Vergil

  25. Ibid.

  26. Bacon

  27. Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  28. CSP Spain

  29. André

  30. Bacon

  31. Calendar of Papal Registers

  32. Original Letters Illustrative of English History

  33. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince

  34. Leland: Collectanea

  35. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  36. Bacon

  37. Vergil

  38. André

  39. Bacon

  11: “BRIGHT ELIZABETH”

  1. Bacon

  2. Gristwood

  3. Bacon

  4. Ibid.

  5. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  6. Bacon

  7. Rawlinson MS. 146, f. 158, Bodleian Library; Leland: Collectanea

  8. Great Chronicle of London

  9. This account of Elizabeth’s coronation and the attendant celebrations is based on the descriptions in Leland: Collectanea; Cotton MS. Julius B XII, f. 39; Rawlinson MS. 146, f. 161; Egerton MS. 985, f. 19; English Coronation Records

  10. Norris

  11. Tessa Rose

  12. Probably the same scepter that Anne Neville is shown holding in the Rous Roll.

  13. The King and Queen had attended Margaret’s wedding (HVIIPPE), which had taken place sometime after September 1486 (Pierce). Margaret was to bear Sir Richard five children before his death in 1505, and would name one Henry and another Arthur.

  14. Parsons

  15. Strong: Lost Treasures of Britain; Strong: Coronation; Tessa Rose

  16. The Pageants of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, B.L. Cotton MS. Julius E IV

  17. Hilliam

  18. Strickland states that this poem, dated 1486, was found in an old chest at Gayton, Northamptonshire, in the 1840s. It is also cited by Davey.

  19. Leland: Collectanea

  12: “ELYSABETH YE QUENE”

  1. Laynesmith

  2. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  3. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII; Myers: Crown, Household and Parliament in Fifteenth-Century England; Myers: “The Household Accounts of Queen Margaret of Anjou, 1452–53”; Laynesmith; PPE; Crawford: “The Queen’s Council in the Middle Ages”

  4. Crawford: “The Queen’s Council in the Middle Ages”; Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England; PPE

  5. Ibid.

  6. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; PPE

  7. Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII. Ormond’s great-granddaughter, Anne Boleyn, became the second wife of Elizabeth’s son, Henry VIII.

  8. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  9. Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  10. Crawford: “The Queen’s Council in the Middle Ages”; Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England; The Household of Edward IV; Myers: “The Household Accounts of Queen Margaret of Anjou, 1452–53”; PPE

  11. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  12. Ibid.; PPE

  13. PPE

  14. Ibid.

  15. Ibid.; Hayward

  16. PPE

  17. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Great Wardrobe Accounts

  18. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII

  19. PPE; Hayward

  20. PPE

  21. Ibid.

  22. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; PPE; Norris

  23. PPE

  24. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; PPE

  25. HVIIPPE

  26. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

  27. HVIIPPE

  28. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; PPE

  29. England in the Fifteenth Century

  30. PPE

  31. The Reign of Henry VII from Contemporary Sources; Dictionary of National Biography; Handbook of British Chronology

  32. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain; Lisle Letters

  33. Given-Hilson; Beauclerk-Dewar and Powell; Lisle Letters

  34. PPE

  35. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  36. CSP Spain

  37. PPE

  38. Ibid. The later term “chambermaid” derives from “chamberer.”

  39. PPE

  40. Leland: Collectanea

  41. Collection of Ordinances

  42. PPE

  43. Ibid.

  44. Harris

  45. Great Wardrobe Accounts; PPE

  46. PPE

  47. Exchequer Records E.101/415/3

  48. PPE

  49. Johnson

  50. PPE

  51. Ibid.

  52. Ibid. I am indebted to historian Siobhan Clarke for the information on black clothing.

  53. PPE; Hayward

  54. PPE

  55. Great Wardrobe Accounts; PPE; Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  56. PPE

  57. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Johnson; Norris; Hayward

  58. PPE

  59. Alberge

  60. PPE

  61. HVIIPPE

  62. PPE

  63. Ibid.

  64. Ibid.; Hayward

  65. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  66. Licence: Elizabeth of York

  67. PPE

  68. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  69. Ibid.

  70. HVIIPPE; Great Wardrobe Accounts; Exchequer Records E.101; Hayward; Gristwood

  71. PPE

  13: “UNBOUNDED LOVE”

  1. André

  2. See, for example, Jones and Underwood; Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  3. College of Arms MS. I, III, f. 10

  4. Additional MS. 38, 133, f. 132b; Leland: Collectanea

  5. Holinshed

  6. Letters of the Queens of England, 1100–1547

  7. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  8. One who holds lands of an overlord in exchange for knight’s service.

  9. The official in charge of administration.

  10. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  11. Charter Rolls C.53

  12. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  13. Leland: Collectanea

  14. CSP Spain

  15. Ibid.

  16. Hedley; Hope; Goodall. The eastern part of the gallery and the arraying chamber still survive, much altered. Elizabeth’s dining chamber is now the Queen’s Drawing Room. The site of her bedchamber is now occupied by the central room of the Royal Library. The old state apartments were extensively remodeled for Charles II in the seventeenth century, and for George IV in the nineteenth century.

  17. Hentzner

  18. Hayward

  19. Leland: Collectanea

  20. Ibid.

  21. Gristwood

  22. Licence: Elizabeth of York

  23. CSP Spain

  24. CSP Venice

  25. Leland: Collectanea

  26. Pierce

  27. CSP Spain

  28. Leland: Collectanea

  29. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh

  30. Licence: Elizabeth of York

  31. Cotton MS. Julius B XII; Leland: Collectanea

  32. Leland: Collectanea

  33. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; PPE

  34. Leland: Collectanea; Green. Str
ickland, in her Lives of the Queens of Scotland, states incorrectly that the princess was christened in St. Margaret’s Church, Westminster.

  35. Leland: Collectanea

  36. Exchequer Records E.404; Collection of Ordinances; Original Letters Illustrative of English History; Glasheen

  37. Leland: Collectanea

  38. CSP Spain. When Granada finally fell in 1492, completing the centuries-long Reconquest of Spain, Te Deum was sung in St. Paul’s Cathedral. The suggestion that Ferdinand wrote to Elizabeth because he recognized her title comes from the historian Sarah Gristwood, in correspondence with the author.

  39. Leland: Collectanea

  40. Ibid.

  41. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII

  42. Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Starkey: Six Wives

  43. Her surname is also given as Uxbridge. Later she married Walter Luke (or Locke).

  44. Exchequer Records E.404

  45. Lambard. These apartments do not survive.

  46. Dowsing; Hedley; Thurley: The Royal Palaces of Tudor England

  47. Starkey: Monarchy; Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince; Laynesmith

  48. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince; Exchequer Records E.404

  49. In Henry VIII: Man and Monarch, an engraving of 1748 by George Vertue, incorrectly inscribed as Prince Henry, Prince Arthur, and Princess Margaret, is said to be based on “a no-longer-extant and possibly spurious painting of 1496.” But “Henry” is clearly older than “Margaret,” and the painting, by Jan Gossaert, which is in the Royal Collection (a copy is in the collection of the Earl of Pembroke at Wilton House, Wiltshire), in fact portrays Dorothea, John, and Christina, the children of Christian II, King of Denmark, and was painted in 1526. It is recorded in Henry VIII’s collection, but in the eighteenth century was misidentified, perhaps by Queen Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II, as the children of Henry VII.

  50. CSP Milan

  51. CSP Spain

  52. Vergil; André

  53. CSP Spain

  54. Bacon

  55. Strickland

  56. Lancelott

  57. Bacon

  58. Vergil

  59. Book of Howth

  60. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  61. Bacon

  62. Ibid.

  63. Arundel MS. 26 f. 29v

  64. A Collection of all the Wills, now known to be extant, of the Kings and Queens of England

  65. Arundel MS. 26 f. 29v

  66. Arundel MS. 26 f. 30

  67. Arundel MS. 26 f. 29v

  68. Collection of Ordinances

  69. PPE

  70. Leland: Collectanea

  71. Exchequer Records E.404

  72. Household book of Henry VII as kept by John Heron Treasurer of the Chamber, 1499–1505: Additional MS. 21, 480

  73. André

  74. Vergil

  75. Bacon

  76. Ibid.

  77. Vergil

  78. Ibid.

  79. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII

  80. Mancini

  81. Hepburn

  82. Herbert and New; Walker

  83. Stow: Annals

  84. Bacon

  85. Calendar of the Cecil Papers at Hatfield House; Original Letters Illustrative of English History

  86. Vergil

  87. Four stanzas of seven lines each in iambic pentameter.

  88. Great Chronicle of London

  89. Hall

  90. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  91. Henry VIII: A European Court in England; Hayward. The sketch is probably a copy, dating from ca. 1515–25, of a lost original. It is inscribed “le roy Henry d’Angleterre,” but the identity of the sitter has been disputed on the grounds that the broad-brimmed feathered hat he wears over his coif is a fashion of a later date (Henry VIII: Man and Monarch). However, there are many examples of this type of headgear in the 1490s, and the high square neckline of the prince’s paltock belongs also to that period (Norris).

  92. Sir Thomas Tyng to Sir John Paston, in Paston Letters

  93. Hall; Cotton MS. Julius A. XVI f. 150, in Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  94. Cotton MS. Julius A. XVI f. 150, in Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  95. Stow: London; HVIIPPE

  96. Hall

  97. Ibid.

  98. Bacon

  99. Strickland: Buck; Hutchinson: House of Treason

  100. HVIIPPE

  101. Formulare Anglicanum

  102. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  103. Meerson

  104. Hall

  105. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  106. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Henry VII

  107. Dugdale

  108. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  109. Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, PROB 11/10 q. 25

  110. Cited by Finch

  111. Stow: London

  112. Thurley: The Royal Palaces of Tudor England. Baynard’s Castle was largely destroyed in 1666 during the Great Fire of London; a single turret survived until 1720. The site was excavated in 1972–75.

  113. HVIIPPE

  114. Ibid.

  115. Draper

  116. Lathom House was to be slighted and destroyed in 1645 during the Civil War. A third house was erected in its place in the eighteenth century, but only the west wing stands today (Victoria County History: Lancashire; Neil, Baldwin, and Crosby).

  117. HVIIPPE

  118. White Kennett’s Collections in the Lansdowne MSS.

  119. Bacon

  120. I am indebted to Ian Coulson for these details, and for kindly sending me his article detailing his research on the Paradise Bed, which he acquired in 2010. This research is still ongoing.

  121. HVIIPPE

  14: “DOUBTFUL DROPS OF ROYAL BLOOD”

  1. Cotton MS. Vitellius A. XVI f. 156 gives October 7, but Stow: London, citing the tomb inscription, gives November 14. This cannot be correct, as the warrant for the funeral expenses was issued on October 26.

  2. HVIIPPE

  3. Ibid.; Bacon

  4. HVIIPPE

  5. Exchequer Records E.404; Egerton MS. 2, 642, f. 185v

  6. Great Chronicle of London; Cotton MS. Vitellius A. XVI f. 156; Sandford; Lane; Strickland; Stow: London

  7. Stow: London

  8. PPE; Vail; Ashdown-Hill: Richard III’s “Beloved Cousyn”; Smith

  9. Foedera

  10. Bacon

  11. CSP Spain

  12. The King and Queen were in residence at Sheen from February 26 until they moved to Windsor on April 14 (HVIIPPE).

  13. Records of the Keeper of the Privy Seal PSO 1; Exchequer Records E.101

  14. HVIIPPE

  15. Cokayne

  16. HVIIPPE

  17. Ibid.

  18. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain

  19. Exchequer Records E.101; PPE

  20. Miscellaneous Books E.36

  21. Meerson

  22. PPE

  23. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince

  24. Ibid.

  25. Erasmus: The Epistles of Erasmus

  26. Skelton: The Poetical Works

  27. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince

  28. Loades: Tudor Queens

  29. PPE

  30. Cited by Strickland

  31. HVIIPPE; Special Collections S.C. 1/51/189

  32. CSP Venice

  33. HVIIPPE; Strickland; Wroe

  34. The Reign of Henry VII from Contemporary Sources; Gristwood: Bruce

  35. Hall

  36. Ibid.

  37. HVIIPPE

  38. Ibid.

  39. CSP Milan

  40. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince; Hutchinson: Young Henry

  41. Starkey: Henry, Virtuous Prince

  42. CSP Venice; CSP
Milan

  43. Bacon

  44. Ibid.

  45. CSP Venice

  46. Ibid.

  47. Letter of Henry VII in Lambeth Palace MS. 632 f. 25

  48. Bacon

  49. Gristwood

  50. André

  51. Ibid.; Gristwood

  52. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  53. Wroe; Gristwood

  54. Great Chronicle of London; Cotton MS. Vitellius, A XVI, f. 168; Moorhen

  55. Wroe

  56. Bacon

  57. Meerson; Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland; Miscellaneous Books E.36; HVIIPPE; Wroe

  58. HVIIPPE

  59. Cotton MS. Vitellius A XVI, printed in Chronicles of London

  60. CSP Venice

  61. Baldwin: Elizabeth Woodville

  62. Egerton MS. 616, f. 7

  63. CSP Spain

  64. Before the Reformation, priests were customarily given the courtesy title “sir.”

  65. The Voice of the Middle Ages in Personal Letters

  66. CSP Milan

  67. “St. Thomas’ night,” according to The Great Chronicle of London, although CSP Milan says the night before Christmas Eve.

  68. CSP Venice

  69. CSP Milan

  70. Ibid.

  71. CSP Venice

  72. Bacon

  73. CSP Milan

  74. Ibid.

  75. Great Chronicle of London

  76. CSP Milan

  77. CSP Spain

  78. PPE

  79. HVIIPPE

  80. Anglo: “The Court Festivals of Henry VII”

  81. HVIIPPE

  82. CSP Spain

  83. Ibid.

  84. Ibid.

  85. Ibid.

  86. Gristwood

  87. CSP Spain

  88. Ibid.

  89. Ibid.

  90. Ibid.

  91. HVIIPPE

  92. Capgrave

  93. HVIIPPE

  94. Cooper; Lyte

  95. CSP Spain

  96. Licence: Elizabeth of York

  97. CSP Spain

  98. Ibid.

  99. Foedera

  100. Great Chronicle of London

  101. Green

  102. Great Wardrobe Accounts; Exchequer Records E.101; HVIIPPE

  103. The date is recorded in the Beaufort Hours, which is more likely to be correct than Ayala, who wrote that the Queen “was delivered of a son on Friday” (CSP Spain). Charles Wriothesley also gives the date incorrectly as February 22.

  104. Great Wardrobe Accounts; HVIIPPE

  105. CSP Spain

  106. Gristwood

  107. CSP Spain

  108. HVIIPPE

  109. Wriothesley

  110. Including your author in Britain’s Royal Families.

  111. Lenz Harvey: The Rose and the Thorn

 
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