Mary Boleyn: The Great and Infamous Whore by Alison Weir


  13. Brigden.

  14. The Complete Peerage.

  15. Tallis.

  16. Hare; Westminster Abbey: Official Guides.

  17. Cotton mss. Cleopatra.

  18. Cited by Beauclerk-Dewar and Powell.

  19. Naunton.

  20. Dating from 1513 and now in the British Library.

  21. Cited by Sitwell.

  22. Cited by Rowse.

  23. L. & P.

  24. Brigden and Wilson.

  25. Tighe.

  26. L. & P.

  27. Brigden and Wilson.

  28. Walder.

  29. L. & P.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Ibid.

  32. Ibid. Denny (Anne Boleyn) is incorrect in following Strickland’s long discredited theory that the countess died in 1512, whereupon Thomas Boleyn supposedly took a second wife who came from “inferior gentry” stock.

  33. L. & P.

  34. Ibid.; The Lisle Letters; Ives.

  35. National Archives: Exchequer Inquisition Post Mortem, 639/4,493/4. Wiltshire did not end his life in disgrace, as Griffith states.

  36. L. & P.

  37. Ibid.

  38. The Complete Peerage.

  39. L. & P.

  40. Ibid.

  41. Ibid.

  42. Ibid.; The Chronicle of Calais; Weir: The Six Wives of Henry VIII.

  43. L. & P.

  44. Ibid.

  45. Ibid.

  46. Ibid.

  47. Ibid.

  48. The post cannot have been secured for Katherine by Mary Boleyn, as Jones claims, for Mary was probably still in Calais at that time, and had no influence at the English court, which she probably never visited after 1534.

  49. L. & P.

  50. Ibid.

  51. For Rochford Hall, see Michael Clark; Wright: The County of Essex; Benton; Barnes and Newman; Tompkins; Cryer; Barrett; Stogdon; Royal Commission on Historical Monuments in Essex. From the eleventh century to the fourteenth, the manor had been the property of the de Essex and de Rochford families. In 1342, after the de Rochford line had died out, Edward III granted the manor to William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, and thence it had come into the possession of the Crown through the marriage of Bohun’s granddaughter Mary to the future Henry IV. Henry IV restored the manor to another granddaughter of William de Bohun, Joan FitzAlan, Lady Bergavenny, who bequeathed it on her death in 1435 to James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond (the “White Earl”), Mary Boleyn’s great-uncle, who was created Earl of Wiltshire in 1449. It was this James Butler who, in the 1450s, dismantled the old manor house and built in its place the mansion that would become Rochford Hall. The fifth Earl, a stout Lancastrian, was attaindered and executed in 1461 for supporting the wrong side in the Wars of the Roses, and the manor again reverted to the Crown. It remained in the royal gift throughout the Yorkist period, but was restored, with all the other family estates, to Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond, by the first Tudor King, Henry VII, soon after his accession in 1485.

  52. Rochford Hall was solidly constructed of red brick and Kentish ragstone, with walls up to three feet thick, and was moated on at least three sides. The bricks were similar to those used for Hampton Court in the 1530s, and the woodwork was of the same style as that used in the 1540s for the Lieutenant’s Lodging—the present Queen’s House—in the Tower of London. Rochford Hall was a gabled house, built around three or four courtyards, and boasted at least three octagonal towers (of the twelfth or thirteenth century), perpendicular door arches, and high, twisting Tudor chimneys. There were east, west, and middle wings, leading southward from the north wing, and a great hall and chapel, testifying to the high status of the hall’s occupants. Tradition has it that the original chapel was largely destroyed by a great fire before 1461.

  53. Michael Clark. This suggests that Stafford retained his association with or stayed on at Rochford Hall after his stepson, Henry Carey, inherited it.

  54. Barrett.

  55. Wilkinson (Mary Boleyn) gives this as Hendon.

  56. Wilkinson (Mary Boleyn) gives this as Bransted.

  57. L. & P.

  58. Fox.

  59. L. & P.; Ball.

  60. The date is recorded by Sir Francis Knollys in his Latin dictionary.

  61. L. & P.

  62. Warnicke: The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn; Hasler.

  63. There is no evidence to support claims that Katherine was appointed a companion to Anne of Cleves and went to live with her at Hever, one of the properties the former Queen had been given as part of her nullity settlement.

  64. L. & P.

  65. Wilkinson (Mary Boleyn) gives this as Leith.

  66. L. & P. Within three years Henry VIII had sold Henden to Sir Thomas Gresham (L. & P.).

  67. Ibid.; Bindoff.

  68. L. & P.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Ibid.

  71. Ibid. Letters Patent are legal instruments in the form of an open letter from a monarch to a subject, granting lands, offices, rights, or titles.

  72. Bindoff. They did not, as Denny (Anne Boleyn) states, live there as newlyweds.

  73. L. & P.

  74. Ibid.

  75. Ibid.

  76. Ibid.

  77. Ibid.

  78. Ibid.

  79. Blomefield; Round.

  80. For a fuller discussion, see Weir: The Lady in the Tower; Borman.

  81. L. & P.

  82. Ibid.

  83. Ibid.

  84. According to her inquisition postmortem in the National Archives, cited by Round.

  85. Beauclerk-Dewar and Powell.

  86. L. & P.

  87. Michael Clark.

  88. Cited by Tallis.

  89. Also cited by Tallis.

  90. It has been established that the diapered bricks used for the present church tower are the same as those used for Rochford Hall, and that they are similar to those used at Hampton Court in the 1530s.

  91. Savage, in The Love Letters of Henry VIII.

  APPENDIX I: OF HER GRACE’S KIN

  1. For his later career, see Bindoff.

  2. L. & P.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ruth Richardson.

  5. Hoskins.

  6. For details of the Carey children’s lives, see, for example: Michael Clark; Beauclerk-Dewar and Powell; The Complete Peerage; The Dictionary of National Biography; Varlow (both titles).

  7. Michael Clark; Hughes.

  8. Bindoff. Again, there is no evidence that they married at Hengrave Hall, Suffolk, as asserted in Rootsweb.

  9. Beauclerk-Dewar and Powell.

  10. Varlow: “Sir Francis Knollys’s Latin Dictionary: New Evidence for Katherine Carey”; Carey.

  11. Naunton.

  12. Varlow: The Lady Penelope.

  13. Ibid.

  14. Michael Clark.

  15. Ibid.

  16. “Household Expenses of the Princess Elizabeth during her Residence at Hatfield October 1, 1551 to September 30, 1552.”

  17. I am indebted to Peter Steward for information about Philadelphia Carey; he lives in a property she once owned at Hambleden, near Henley-on-Thames.

  18. For example, Fox.

  19. Hughes.

  20. Hoskins.

  21. Varlow: The Lady Penelope.

  22. Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots, 1547–1603.

  23. Lansdowne mss.

  24. Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots.

  25. The Love Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, to James, Earl of Bothwell.

  26. I am indebted to Douglas Richardson, the author of Plantagenet Ancestry, for drawing my attention to these letters and laying out these arguments.

  27. Jones says £400.

  28. The Complete Peerage.

  29. Hoskins; Bindoff; Clutterbuck.

  30. L. & P.

  31. Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating to English Affairs, preserved principally in the Archives of Simancas, Vols.1–4, Elizabeth I, 1558–1603.

&nbs
p; 32. Rowse.

  33. Cited by Somerset: Elizabeth I.

  34. Aikin.

  35. Naunton.

  36. Ibid.

  37. Ibid.

  38. Ibid.

  39. Hoskins.

  40. Cited by Johnson.

  41. National Archives: SP 15/17/113.

  42. Cited by Rowse.

  43. Brewer.

  44. Naunton.

  45. Cited by Neale.

  46. Black.

  47. Collection of the late Lord Berkeley, Hunsdon’s descendant.

  48. Strong: Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I.

  49. Asquith.

  50. Ibid.

  51. Doran.

  52. Of course, there are other theories as to her identity; I am grateful to Dr. Katharine Craik of Oxford Brookes University for kindly sending me a reading list on the “Dark Lady.”

  53. Beauclerk-Dewar and Powell.

  54. There are several studies of Emilia Lanier; see, for example, McBride; Woods.

  55. Naunton; Fuller.

  56. Not the Sanctuary, as Fox states.

  57. Stow.

  58. Michael Clark; The Complete Peerage; Jones.

  59. Varlow: The Lady Penelope.

  60. Westminster Abbey: Official Guide; Jenkyns; Trowles.

  61. Hoskins.

  62. Baker.

  63. Jenkyns.

  64. Birch; David Hume; Strickland.

  65. Carey.

  66. Varlow: “Sir Francis Knollys’s Latin Dictionary: New Evidence for Katherine Carey.”

  67. Ibid.

  68. Ibid.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Lansdowne mss.; Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain; Garrett.

  71. Varlow: The Lady Penelope.

  72. Fenelon.

  73. Newton. Jones is incorrect in stating that Elizabeth affectionately called Katherine her “Crow”: that was the nickname she gave to another close friend, Lady Norris.

  74. Varlow: The Lady Penelope.

  75. Ruth Richardson.

  76. Borman.

  77. “Papers relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, communicated by General Sir William Knollys.”

  78. Fenelon, citing Nicholas White, confidant of William Cecil and future Master of the Rolls in Ireland.

  79. “Papers relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, communicated by General Sir William Knollys”; Varlow: The Lady Penelope.

  80. “Papers relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, communicated by General Sir William Knollys.” Jones incorrectly says that it was Elizabeth who blamed Queen Mary for causing Sir Francis to be away from home.

  81. Wright: Queen Elizabeth and her Times.

  82. “Papers relating to Mary, Queen of Scots, communicated by General Sir William Knollys.”

  83. Hatfield mss.; Varlow: “Sir Francis Knollys’s Latin Dictionary: New Evidence for Katherine Carey.”

  84. Ibid.; Dictionary of National Biography.

  85. Hatfield mss.; Westminster Abbey: Official Guide; Trowles.

  86. Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, for the Reigns of Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth I, 1547–1625.

  87. Carroll; Tallis; Hoskins; Hart.

  APPENDIX II: PORTRAITS OF MARY BOLEYN AND WILLIAM CAREY

  1. In the Royal Collection, showing her mourning her murdered son, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley.

  2. Now in Leeds City Art Galleries.

  3. Strong: Tudor and Jacobean Portraits.

  4. Henry VIII: A European Court in England; Starkey, in The Renaissance at Sutton Place.

  5. Henry VIII: A European Court in England.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Ibid.; Paget: “Gerard and Lucas Hornebolte in England.”

  8. Ibid.

  9. John Fletcher. Brooke House was badly damaged by a bomb during the Blitz of 1940, and demolished in 1954/5, the cost of repairing it having been deemed prohibitive.

  10. John Fletcher.

  11. Norris.

  12. John Fletcher.

  13. Mander.

  14. Hui.

  15. Murrell.

  16. Hui; John Fletcher; Ives; Hart.

  17. Jones; Hart.

  18. Jones.

  19. Hui.

  20. Strong: The English Renaissance Miniature.

  This book is gratefully dedicated to

  my editor, Anthony Whittome,

  to mark his retirement.

  ALSO BY ALISON WEIR

  FICTION

  Captive Queen:

  A Novel of Eleanor of Aquitaine

  The Lady Elizabeth:

  A Novel

  Innocent Traitor:

  A Novel of Lady Jane Grey

  NONFICTION

  The Lady in the Tower

  Mistress of the Monarchy

  Queen Isabella

  Mary Queen of Scots and the

  Murder of Lord Darnley

  Henry VIII:

  The King and His Court

  Eleanor of Aquitaine

  The Life of Elizabeth I

  The Children of Henry VIII

  The Wars of the Roses

  The Princes in the Tower

  The Six Wives of Henry VIII

  Britain’s Royal Families:

  The Complete Genealogy

  ABOUT THE AUTHOR

  ALISON WEIR is the New York Times bestselling author of several historical biographies, including The Lady in the Tower, Mistress of the Monarchy, Henry VIII, Eleanor of Aquitaine, The Life of Elizabeth I, and The Six Wives of Henry VIII, and of the novels Captive Queen, Innocent Traitor and The Lady Elizabeth. She lives in Surrey, England, with her husband.

  www.alisonweir.org.uk

  www.alisonweirtours.com

 


 

  Alison Weir, Mary Boleyn: The Great and Infamous Whore

 


 

 
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