Mistress of the Monarchy: The Life of Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster by Alison Weir

  145 Froissart; Vale; Kirby; Goodman, John of Gaunt

  146 Testamenta Eboracensia

  147 Lincoln Cathedral Dean and Chapter Muniments; Wickenden; “Inventories of Plate”

  148 John of Gaunt’s will is dated February 3, 1398, but in view of the medieval legal calendar, which ended on March 25, the year should read 1399. The best text of the will is preserved at York; see Testamenta Eboracensia. A contemporary copy is in Bishop Buckingham’s Register at Lincoln, but this bears the incorrect date of 1397, an error that has often been copied. The will was published by Nichols (A Collection of All the Wills…) in 1780. The Latin text is reproduced by Armitage- Smith, and an English translation is given by Silva- Vigier. See Post, for the dating of the will.

  149 For Margaret Marshal, Duchess of Norfolk, his cousin, from whom he had purchased these items

  150 Goodman, Honourable Lady

  151 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Norwich Public Library ms. NRS 11061

  152 The date is given by Walsingham as February 3, the date of the will, and the date on which the duke’s obit was celebrated at St. Paul’s (Dugdale). Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 28; Post.

  153 Norris

  154 Testamenta Eboracensia. The less reliable Lincoln text says “unembalmed.”

  155 Walsingham; Armitage- Smith; Harriss; Lucraft: Katherine Swynford; Calendar of Patent Rolls; Froissart; Radford; Cook, “Chaucerian Papers”

  156 This stood on the site of the Church of St. John the Baptist, first built ca. 1400.

  157 Cited by Duffy; Post; Testamenta Eboracensia; Walsingham; Adam of Usk

  158 Testamenta Eboracensia

  159 Calendar of Close Rolls; Calendar of Patent Rolls; St. Paul’s Cathedral mss.

  160 Duffy

  161 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 28

  162 Froissart

  163 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 28; Post


  1. Complete Peerage; Chancery Records, C. 81; Special Collections, S.C. 8

  2. Rotuli Parliamentorum; Somerville; McKisack

  3. Froissart; Rose; Goodman, John of Gaunt

  4. Calendar of Close Rolls. I have found no other record of the lands Katherine held in Leicester, Northamptonshire, and Norfolk prior to her marriage to John of Gaunt.

  5. Calendar of Patent Rolls

  6. A Collection of All the Wills…

  7. Now number 2 Minster Yard. Lincoln Cathedral Dean and Chapter Muniments, Dean and Chapter Acts, Liber VI (i), ff.2, 3; Major; Jones, Major, Varley, and Johnson.

  8. These measurements cannot have been taken very accurately, as the remains of the medieval hall measure 44 by 26 feet.

  9. For the Priory, see Jones, Major, Varley, and Johnson; Major; Silva- Vigier; Pevsner and Harris; Jones, Four Minster Houses; Calendar of Patent Rolls.

  10. Early Lincoln Wills. His name is also given as Peter Dalton.

  11 Goodman, Katherine Swynford

  12 Special Collections, S.C. 8; Exchequer Records, E. 403; Calendar of Patent Rolls

  13 Chronicque de la Traïson et Mort de Richart Deux

  14 Trokelowe

  15 Goodman, Katherine Swynford

  16 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Chute; Lucraft, Katherine Swynford

  17 Calendar of Patent Rolls

  18 Crow and Olsen

  19 He was also required to surrender the Warwick lands to the King. Rotuli Parliamentorum.

  20 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Exchequer Records, E. 28

  21 Calendar of Patent Rolls

  22 Lucraft, Katherine Swynford

  23 The site is now occupied by the Henry VII Chapel.

  24 The date usually given for Chaucer’s death, October 25, 1400, was inscribed on the Tudor tomb, and may well have been copied from the original epitaph plate that was displayed in the abbey. Chaucer’s bones were uncovered in 1889 when Robert Browning was buried in Poet’s Corner, and the coroner then estimated that he had been about five feet six inches tall. There are no grounds for accepting recent assertions that he was murdered on the orders of Henry IV (Jones, Who Murdered Chaucer).

  25 Goodman, Honourable Lady; Calendar of Patent Rolls; Exchequer Records, E. 28

  26 Goodman, Katherine Swynford. Perry suggests that the reference was to Sir Norman Swynford, but this is unlikely in view of evidence from the Exchequer Records that will shortly be cited in the text.

  27 Bruce; Wylie; Beltz

  28 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Given-Wilson, Royal Household

  29 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 42

  30 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 29

  31 Blomefield and Parkin; Lucraft, Katherine Swynford; Perry

  32 Norris

  33 Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan;” Historiae Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres

  34 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 42, DL. 49

  35 Exchequer Records, E. 101; Calendar of Close Rolls

  36 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Calendar of Close Rolls

  37 Ibid.

  38 Archaeological Journal, XXXI, London, 1874

  39 Foedera

  40 In 1406, Isabella married Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans. She died in childbirth in 1409.

  41 Calendar of Patent Rolls

  42 Harriss; McGrath

  43 Calendar of Close Rolls

  44 Walsingham

  45 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 28

  46 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Harriss

  47 Rotuli Parliamentorum; Trokelowe; Walsingham

  48 Exchequer Records, E. 404, E. 101; Goodman, Marriage of Henry IV

  49 Calendar of Patent Rolls

  50 Ibid.; Calendar of Close Rolls

  51 Complete Peerage; Desiderata Curiosa; Lincoln Cathedral Dean and Chapter Muniments, Chapter Acts A. ii.29, ff. 2, 3

  52 Harvey, “Catherine Swynford’s Chantry”

  53 Duffy

  54 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 29, DL. 42

  55 Lucraft, “Missing From History;” Katherine Swynford; Goodman, Katherine Swynford. The Prerogative Court of Canterbury records are in the National Archives.

  56 Lincoln Cathedral Dean and Chapter Muniments, Bj.2.10

  57 Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan;” Historiae Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres

  58 Lincoln Cathedral Dean and Chapter Muniments; Jones, Major, Varley, and Johnson; Weir: English Aristocratic Pedigrees

  59 Wickenden

  60 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Goodman, Katherine Swynford

  61 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Excerpta Historica

  62 Lucraft, “Missing From History;” Katherine Swynford; A Collection of All the Wills…; Jamieson. The hospital was demolished in 1825.

  63 Leese; Lambeth Palace ms. 20, f.173v; A Collection of All the Wills…

  64 Hicks

  65 Duffy; A Collection of All the Wills…

  66 Harriss, for example

  67 Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers; Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan; www.rootsweb.com; Verity, “A Non- Affair to Remember.” Joan married Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat’s, Glamorganshire (1389-1453), by whom she had a son, Henry.

  68 Vale. The portrait is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

  69 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Calendar of Close Rolls

  70 Calendar of Patent Rolls

  71 Worcestre

  72 Dictionary of National Biography

  73 Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan;” Perry

  74 Chronicles and Memorials of St. Edmund’s Abbey; Leese; Antiquarian Repertory

  75 Lucraft, Katherine Swynford; Armitage-Smith; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan.” The book that Thomas Hoccleve dedicated to Joan is Cosin ms. V.iii.9 at Durham University.

  76 Historiae Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres

  77 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Harvey, “Catherine Swynford’s Chantry;” “Inventories of Plate;” Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan;” Given- Wilson; Collections Relative to … the Diocese of York

  78 Ha
rvey, “Catherine Swynford’s Chantry;” Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan”

  79 Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan”

  80 Duffy; Sandford; Harvey, “Catherine Swynford’s Chantry;” A Collection of All the Wills…; Goodman, Katherine Swynford. Her arms were noted around 1600 by Francis Thynne, Lancaster Herald.

  81 The Neville Book of Hours is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

  82 Goodman, “Redoubtable Countess Joan”

  83 www.english.upenn

  84 English Historical Documents

  85 Griffiths and Thomas

  86 Perry; Goodall

  87 Foedera

  88 Perry

  89 Calendar of Patent Rolls; Manly, Some New Light on Chaucer; Excerpta Historica

  90 Hunter

  91 Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem

  92 Cole. Thomas Beaufort left him 50 marks (£7,076) in his will.

  93 Campling

  94 Elder

  95 Calendar of Patent Rolls

  96 Excerpta Historica

  97 Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem

  98 Cole

  99 Ibid.

  100 For Kettlethorpe, see www.kettlethorpe.com; Leese; Perry; Goodman, John of Gaunt; Katherine Swynford; Cole

  101 Silva- Vigier; Lucraft, “Missing From History”

  102 The epitaph was recorded by Weever. The Latin inscription was recorded by Anthony Munday in 1618, in his extended edition of Stow’s Survey of London.

  103 Exchequer Records, E. 301; Dugdale, History of St. Paul’s

  104 Holland

  105 B. L. Lansdowne ms. 874, f.115

  106 Benham

  107 Dugdale, History of St. Paul’s

  108 Sandford

  109 Ibid.; Duffy

  110 Arnold

  111 Leland, Itinerary

  112 Dugdale, “Book of Monuments”

  113 Harvey, “Catherine Swynford’s Chantry;” Duffy; Goodman, Katherine Swynford

  114 Duchy of Lancaster Records, DL. 43

  115 John Evelyn, the seventeenth- century diarist, noted that “the soldiers had lately knocked off most of the brasses from the gravestones.”

  116 Kendrick, Cathedral Church of Lincoln

  117 Dugdale, Monasticon. A drawing of the repositioned tombs was made in 1809 by John Buckler (B.L. Additional ms. 36369, f.87), which is reproduced in Harvey, “Catherine Swynford’s Chantry.”

  118 Lincoln Cathedral Dean and Chapter Muniments, AIV 15; Jones, Major, Varley, and Johnson

  119 Payn Roët’s epitaph in St. Paul’s Cathedral, cited by Silva- Vigier


  1 The Austin Chronicle

  2 Goodman, John of Gaunt

  3 Cantor

  4 The date is sometimes incorrectly given as 1904 or 1916.

  5 Anya Seton’s personal papers are held in the archives of the Historical Society of the Town of Greenwich, and biographical details of her appear on many Internet sites; of these, I am indebted chiefly to “The Setons: The Setons at Home,” by Lucinda H. MacKethan of North Carolina State University (www.nhc.rtp.nc.us:8080).

  6 BBC: The Big Read

  7 “National Review Online,” www.nationalreview.com



  Adam of Usk. Chronicon Adae de Usk, A.D. 1377–1404 (ed. E. Maunde Thompson). Oxford/London, 1876/1904). The Chronicle of Adam Usk, 1377–1421 (trans. and ed. C. Given-Wilson), Oxford, 1997.

  Additional mss., British Library.

  Aden- Even, Paul, and Jequier, Léon. L’Armorial Wijnbergen. Amsterdam, 1954.

  Amcotts mss., Lincolnshire Archives Office.

  “The Anglo- French Negotiations at Bruges, 1374-77” (ed. E. Perroy), Camden Miscellany, XIX, Camden Society, 3rd Series, LXXX, 1952.

  The Anonimalle Chronicle, 1333 to 1381, (ed. V.H. Galbraith). From a ms. written at St. Mary’s Abbey, York. Manchester, 1927.

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  Bishop Beaufort’s Register. Episcopal Register 13, Lincoln Records Office. Bishop Buckingham’s Register. Episcopal Register 12, Lincoln Records Office. Boucicaut, Jean. Livre des faits du bon messire Jean de Maigre, dit Boucicaut (ed. J.A.C. Buchon). 1835.

  Bradshaw, Henry. Statutes of Lincoln Cathedral, vol. II (ed. Christopher Wordsworth). Cambridge, 1897.

  Brooke, Ralph. A Catalogue and Succession of the Kings of England. London, 1619.

  Calendar of Close Rolls: Richard II (6 vols.). HMSO, London, 1914-27.

  Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland Preserved in Her Majesty’s Public Record Office, vol. IV (4 vols., ed. J. Bain). Edinburgh, 1888. Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, (5 vols., ed. W.H. Bliss, et al). London, 1893, reprinted London, 1971.

  “Calendar of Escheat Rolls to 1484,” Rawlinson mss., Bodleian Library, Oxford.

  Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous, 1399-1422. HMSO, 1968.

  Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem (18 vols). HMSO, 1898-1955.

  Calendar of Patent Rolls of the County Palatine. From the Fifth to the Eleventh Year of the Regality of Duke John, A.D. 1381-1387. Record Report XL, Appendix 4.

  Calendar of Patent Rolls (54 vols.). HMSO, 1893-1916.

  Calendar of the Rolls of the Chancery of the County Palatine of Lancaster. First to Twelfth Year of the Regality of Duke John (A.D. 1377–1389). Record Report XXXII, Appendix I (4).

  Calendar of Signet Letters of Henry IV and Henry V (1399–1422) (ed. J.L. Kirby). London, 1978.

  Camden, William. Britannia (ed. Richard Gough). London, 1806.

  Capgrave, John. The Chronicle of England (ed. F.C. Hingeston). Rolls series, HMSO, 1858.

  Capgrave, John. Johannis Capgrave Liber de illustribus Henricis (ed. F.C. Hingeston). Rolls series, HMSO, 1858.

  Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan (6 vols., ed. G.T. Clark). Cardiff, 1910.

  Cartulaire des Comtes de Hainaut (6 vols., ed. Leopold Devilliers). Brussels, 1881-96.

  Catalogue of Seals in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum, vol. III (ed. Walter de Gray Birch). London, 1887-1900.

  Chancery Records (National Archives): C. 47 Chancery Miscellanea, C. 53 Charter Rolls, C 61 Gascon Rolls, C. 81 Chancery Warrants; C. 137-140 Inquisitions Post Mortem, Series I; C. 143 Inquisitions Ad Quod Damnum.

  Chandos Herald. Life of the Black Prince by the Herald of Sir John Chandos (ed. M.K. Pope and E.C. Lodge), 1910.

  Charters of the Duchy of Lancaster (ed. William Hardy). London, 1845.

  Chaucer, Geoffrey, “The Book of the Duchess,” in Love Visions, trans. and ed. Brian Stone, London, 1983.

  Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales (trans. Neville Coghill). London, 1986, reprinted 1992.

  Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Complete Poetry and Prose of Geoffrey Chaucer (ed. John Fisher). New York, 1977, revised 1989.

  Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Complete Works (ed. W.W. Skeat). Oxford, 1951.

  Chaucer, Geoffrey. Troilus and Criseyde. Corpus Christi College Cambridge ms. 61.

  Chronicles of London (ed. C.L. Kingsford). Oxford, 1905.

  Chronicles and Memorials of St. Edmund’s Abbey (3 vols., ed. T Arnold). Rolls series, HMSO, 1890-96.

  Chronicles of the Revolution, 1397-1400 (ed. C. Given- Wilson), 1993.

  Chronique de la Traïson et Mort de Richart Deux, Roy Dengleterre (ed. Benjamin Williams). English Historical Society, IX, London, 1846.

  Chronique du religieux de Saint- Denys, A.D. 1380-1422 (6 vols., ed. M.L. Bellaguet), Collection des Documents Inédites sur l’Histoire de France, 1839-52.

  Collection of All the Wills, now known to be extant,
of the Kings and Queens of England (ed. J. Nichols). London, 1780.

  “Collection of John of Gaunt’s Warrants, 1365-1370,” Corpus Christi College Oxford ms. 495.

  Collections Relative to Churches and Chapels in the Diocese of York (ed. George Lawton). London, 1840, revised edition 1842.

  Cotton mss., British Library.

  Creton, Jean. Histoire de Roy d’Angleterre, Richard (ed. J.A.C. Buchon). Collection des chroniques, Françaises, Paris, 1826.

  Deschamps, Eustache. Oeuvres complètes de Eustache Deschamps (11 vols., ed. A. de Queux de Saint- Hilaire and G. Raynaud). Paris, 1878-1903.

  Desiderata Curiosa (2 vols., ed. Francis Peck). London, 1732-35.

  “Dodsworth ms. 7: Roll of Writs of the Duchy of Lancaster,” Bodleian Library, Oxford. “Drury Family Papers,” ms. compiled by Richard Montray, 1889.

  Duchy of Lancaster. Calendar of Ancient Charters or Grants, Record Report XXXV, Appendix I, and XXXVI, Appendix 2.

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  Duchy of Lancaster Records (National Archives): DL. 27 Ancient Deeds, DL. 28 Accounts Various, DL. 29 Ministers’ Accounts, DL. 37 Chancery Rolls, DL. 42 Miscellaneous Books, DL. 43 Rentals and Surveys, DL. 49 Grant and Lawsuits, PL. 3 Lancaster Palatine Warrants.

  Dugdale, William, “Book of Monuments,” British Library Loan mss.

  Dugdale, William. Monasticon Anglicanum (6 vols., ed. J. Caley, H. Ellis and B. Bandine). London, 1817-30.

  Dugdale, William. The History of St. Paul’s Cathedral. London, 1658; ed. H. Ellis, London, 1818.

  Early Lincoln Wills, 1280-1547 (ed. Alfred Gibbons). Lincoln, 1888.

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