Queens of the Conquest: England’s Medieval Queens by Alison Weir


  27. Gathagan: “ ‘Mother of Heroes, Most Beautiful of Mothers’ ”

  28. Recueil de travaux d’érudition dédiés à la mémoire de Julien Havet

  29. Fettu: Queen Matilda; Ducarel; Strickland. I can find no record of what happened to Matilda’s ring, which is presumably lost. The name “Anne” was used in France for both men and women.

  30. Duffy

  31. Ducarel; Borman

  32. Orderic Vitalis; William of Malmesbury

  33. Recueil de travaux d’érudition dédiés à la mémoire de Julien Havet

  34. Orderic Vitalis

  35. Rudborne, who drew on many earlier sources.

  36. The Anglo-Latin Satirical Poets

  PART TWO: MATILDA OF SCOTLAND

  1. “Casting Off the Veil of Religion”

  1. Orderic Vitalis

  2. William of Malmesbury

  3. Orderic Vitalis; Crouch: The Normans

  4. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  5. Turgot

  6. William of Malmesbury

  7. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  8. Orderic Vitalis

  9. Ibid.

  10. Eadmer

  11. Ibid.

  12. Orderic Vitalis

  13. Hilton: Queens Consort

  14. Yorke

  15. There are theories that Christina also transferred to Wilton, but William of Malmesbury states that she grew old at Romsey.

  16. William of Malmesbury

  17. Eadmer

  18. Hollister

  19. Herman of Tournai

  20. Mason: William II

  21. Orderic Vitalis

  22. Sharpe; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  23. Mason: William II

  24. Herman of Tournai

  25. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; Simeon of Durham; John of Worcester

  26. Eadmer; Herman of Tournai

  27. The text continues: “to Earl [sic] Alan, who stood by,” but this is an error, as Alan was dead by then.

  28. Eadmer

  29. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  30. Orderic Vitalis

  31. Ibid.; Southern: St Anselm and His Biographer

  32. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  33. Orderic Vitalis

  34. Turgot

  35. Ibid.

  36. Early Sources of Scottish History

  37. Orderic Vitalis, cited by Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  38. Anselm of Aosta: The Letters of St Anselm of Canterbury; O’Brien O’Keeffe

  39. William of Malmesbury

  40. Ibid.

  41. Orderic Vitalis

  2. “Her Whom He so Ardently Desired”

  1. William of Malmesbury

  2. Orderic Vitalis

  3. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; William of Malmesbury

  4. William of Malmesbury; Orderic Vitalis; Alexander, Archdeacon of Salisbury, in Tracts of the Exchequer, in Gervase of Tilbury

  5. Henry of Huntingdon; Marbodius, Bishop of Rennes; Paris; William of Malmesbury

  6. Orderic Vitalis

  7. Eadmer

  8. Hollister; Hilton: Queens Consort

  9. William of Malmesbury

  10. Barrow; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland; Hilton: Queens Consort. For example, Matilda gave the church of Carham-on-Tweed to Durham Cathedral.

  11. Liber Monasterii de Hyde

  12. Boutemy

  13. Peter of Blois

  14. William of Malmesbury

  15. Ibid.

  16. Ibid.

  17. Henry of Huntingdon

  18. William of Malmesbury

  19. Henry of Huntingdon

  20. Orderic Vitalis

  21. Clare

  22. Wace

  23. Henry of Huntingdon

  24. William of Malmesbury

  25. Orderic Vitalis

  26. William of Malmesbury

  3. “A Matter of Controversy”

  1. Eadmer

  2. William of Malmesbury

  3. Eadmer

  4. Herman of Tournai

  5. Eadmer

  6. Ibid.

  7. The archbishops of Canterbury did not adopt Lambeth as their London residence until c.1200; prior to that, it was a manor of St. Andrew’s cathedral priory in Rochester, and Rochester Cathedral was then the priory church. It may not have been a coincidence that Reynelm, a priest of Rochester, served as Edith’s chancellor before being preferred to the see of Hereford in 1102 (Eadmer).

  8. Eadmer

  9. William of Malmesbury

  10. Eadmer

  11. Ibid.; Lanfranc

  12. Eadmer

  13. William of Malmesbury

  14. Eadmer

  15. Herman of Tournai

  4. “Godric and Godgifu”

  1. Eadmer

  2. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  3. Westminster Abbey was not then established as the royal marriage church, as it is now. It was possibly the scene of two other medieval royal weddings, those of Richard III and Henry VII, although they may have taken place in St. Stephen’s Chapel in Westminster Palace. The modern tradition was established only in 1919.

  4. Eadmer

  5. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  6. Ibid.; Huneycutt: “ ‘Another Esther in Our Times’ ”

  7. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  8. Eadmer

  9. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  10. Crouch: The Normans

  11. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; Eadmer. Orderic Vitalis states that Matilda was crowned by Gérard, Archbishop of York, but he may only have assisted.

  12. English Coronation Records; Green: Henry I

  13. The Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster

  14. Andrew of Wyntoun

  15. Hildebert of Lavardin: Carmina Minora

  16. Hildebert of Lavardin: “Letters”

  17. Eadmer

  18. William of Malmesbury

  19. Eadmer

  20. Aird

  21. Map

  22. Orderic Vitalis

  23. Cited Rose: Kings in the North

  24. William of Malmesbury

  25. Letter 15 in Appendix II

  5. “Another Esther in Our Own Time”

  1. Hardying

  2. By Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Robert of Gloucester, for example.

  3. Herbert de Losinga

  4. Aelred of Rievaulx: “Genealogia regum Anglorum”

  5. Dark

  6. Thompson and Stevens

  7. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154; Hilton: Queens Consort; Wertheimer; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland. Only two of Matilda’s original charters survive.

  8. Crouch: The Normans

  9. William of Malmesbury

  10. John of Worcester

  11. Hardying

  12. Letter 4 in Appendix II

  13. Leland

  14. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  15. Chroniques Anglo-Normandes

  16. Henry of Huntingdon

  17. The History of the King’s Works

  18. The original roof was replaced by the present hammerbeam roof at the end of the fourteenth century.

  19. Steane

  20. Hilton: Queens Consort

  21. Stow: The Survey of London

  22. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  23. Flete; Huneycutt: “ ‘Proclaiming her dignity abroad’ ”

  24. William of Malmesbury

  25. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  26. William of Malmesbury

  27. Könsgen

  28. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154. Henry and Matilda also conceived the idea of enlarging the small Cluniac priory at Montacute in Somerset, founded between 1091 and 1102, but this plan came to nothing.

  29. Latzke

  30. Hilton: Queens Consort; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  31. Heslop

  32. Marbodius, Bishop of Rennes

  6. “Lust for Glory”

  1. “Cons
titutio Domus Regis”; Green: The Government of England under Henry I; Warren: The Governance of Norman and Angevin England; Richardson and Sayles

  2. Hedley

  3. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  4. Hedley

  5. Cotton MS. Vespasian B. X, f.11v, British Library

  6. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  7. Capgrave: The Book of the Illustrious Henries

  8. William of Malmesbury

  9. Lawson

  10. Abbot of Malmesbury in the seventh century.

  11. Könsgen

  12. Hollister

  13. Huneycutt: “ ‘Proclaiming her dignity abroad’ ”

  7. “The Common Mother of All England”

  1. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies

  2. Letter 5 in Appendix II

  3. Letter 6 in Appendix II

  4. Turgot

  5. Labargé

  6. Houts: “Latin Poetry and the Anglo-Norman Court”

  7. Letter 7 in Appendix II

  8. Letter 8 in Appendix II

  9. Ivo of Chartres

  10. Letter 9 in Appendix II

  11. Hildebert of Lavardin: “Letters”

  12. Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon

  13. The First Register of Norwich Cathedral Priory

  14. Letter 10 in Appendix II

  15. Herbert de Losinga

  16. The Cartulary of Holy Trinity, Aldgate

  17. Hardying

  18. Ronzani

  19. Turgot

  20. William of Malmesbury

  21. Aelred of Rievaulx: “Eulogium Davidis Regis Scotorum”; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland. William of Malmesbury, Robert of Gloucester and the annalist of Matilda’s foundation of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, all recount the same episode.

  8. “Most Noble and Royal on Both Sides”

  1. Wace; Gervase of Canterbury

  2. Wace; Chroniques de Normandie

  3. Wace; Chroniques de Normandie; Orderic Vitalis; William of Malmesbury

  4. William of Malmesbury

  5. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  6. John of Worcester

  7. William of Malmesbury. It is sometimes asserted that Eustace and Mary married in 1096, but he was away at that time, acquitting himself heroically as one of the leaders of the First Crusade.

  8. Tanner: “Between Scylla and Charybdis”

  9. Gesta Stephani

  10. The Early Charters of the Augustinian Canons of Waltham Abbey

  11. Bermondsey did not become an abbey until 1399.

  12. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  13. Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon

  14. Victoria County History: Berkshire

  15. Eulogy by Peter Moraunt, monk of Malmesbury, 1140, in Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon

  16. John of Worcester

  17. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  18. Cited Licence

  19. Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon; www.suttoncourtenay.co.uk; www.sclhs.org.uk; Fletcher: Sutton Courtenay

  20. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which records that her daughter was eight years and fifteen days old when she left England at the beginning of Lent 1110 to be married.

  21. Gervase of Canterbury; Crouch: The Normans; Morris

  22. Or Adelaide. John of Hexham calls her both Aaliz and Adela.

  23. Corpus Christi College MS. 373

  24. Chibnall: The Empress Matilda

  9. “Daughter of Archbishop Anselm”

  1. Vaughn

  2. Hugh the Chanter

  3. Vaughn

  4. Anselm of Aosta: S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi opera omnia

  5. Hilton: Queens Consort

  6. Letter 18 in Appendix II

  7. Letter 11 in Appendix II

  8. Letter 12 in Appendix II

  9. Schmitt, in Anselm of Aosta: S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi opera omnia

  10. “Reprove, Beseech, Rebuke”

  1. Henry of Huntingdon

  2. His approximate date of birth has been estimated from the fact that, on 23 November, the Pope wrote to Henry congratulating him on the birth of a son. William was not Maud’s younger twin, as was suggested by Rössler: William of Malmesbury states that they were born at different times, and other evidence supports that.

  3. William of Malmesbury

  4. The Life of Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester

  5. William of Malmesbury

  6. Ibid.

  7. Letter 13 in Appendix II

  8. Anselm of Aosta: S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi opera omnia; Epistolae: Medieval Women’s Latin Letters

  9. Letter 14 in Appendix II

  10. Anselm of Aosta: The Letters of St Anselm of Canterbury

  11. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies

  12. Letter 15 in Appendix II

  13. Letter 16 in Appendix II

  14. Letter 17 in Appendix II

  15. Letter 18 in Appendix II

  11. “Incessant Greetings”

  1. Wertheimer

  2. Hilton: Queens Consort

  3. Robert of Gloucester

  4. Hildebert of Lavardin: “Letters”

  5. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  6. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  7. Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon; Keats-Rohan; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  8. Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon; Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  9. William of Malmesbury

  10. Eadmer

  11. Ibid.

  12. Letter 19 in Appendix II

  13. Huneycutt: “ ‘Proclaiming her dignity abroad’ ”

  14. Letter 20 in Appendix II

  15. Eadmer

  16. Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  17. Farrer. Kingsbury Square is on the site.

  18. Anselm of Aosta: S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi opera omnia

  19. Ibid.

  20. Letter 21 in Appendix II

  21. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies

  22. Letter 22 in Appendix II

  23. Eadmer

  12. “Pious Devotion”

  1. This Latin title was the equivalent of the Saxon “Atheling.”

  2. Orderic Vitalis

  3. Anselm of Aosta: S. Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi opera omnia

  4. Letter 23 in Appendix II

  5. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  6. Adelard of Bath. It is also possible that the Queen he played for was Adelaide of Maurienne, wife of Louis VI of France.

  7. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  8. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  9. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  10. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  11. Around 1110, the monks of Tynemouth built a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity at Old Bewick; a woman’s effigy in that church was once thought to be Matilda’s, but in fact it dates from the fourteenth century.

  12. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  13. Tyerman

  14. Herbert de Losinga

  15. Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis. The dock was in use until the twentieth century, and survives today, but is heavily silted up.

  16. Stow, in A Survey of London, says around 1117.

  17. Hilton: Queens Consort

  18. Victoria County History: Middlesex

  19. Stow: A Survey of London. The church was rebuilt in 1628, and again in 1730.

  20. Labargé

  21. Weever

  22. Stow: A Survey of London

  23. Manning and Bray, who cite a lost document of 1239 relating to an inquiry into the maintenance of the bridge.

  24. Hilton: Queens Consort

  25. Green: Henry I

  26. The first was at Colchester, founded in 1096. In the fourteenth century, the Anonimalle Chronicle of York claimed that “Henry I, because of the industry and counsel of Qu
een Matilda, placed regular canons in the church of Carlisle.” In 1102, Henry had given land in Carlisle for the purpose of founding a religious house, which may have been at Matilda’s behest, although there is no contemporary evidence for it—but the priory of Augustine canons that became Carlisle Cathedral in 1133 was not established until 1122.

  27. The Cartulary of Holy Trinity, Aldgate

  28. Green: Henry I

  29. The Cartulary of Holy Trinity, Aldgate. These amounted to £25.

  30. Stow: A Survey of London

  31. The Cartulary of Holy Trinity, Aldgate; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  32. Labargé

  33. Green: Henry I

  34. Brooke and Keir

  35. Roberts: “Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire”

  36. Atkyns; Norton: England’s Queens; Huneycutt: Matilda of Scotland

  13. “A Girl of Noble Character”

  1. Henry of Huntingdon; Robert of Torigni

  2. Heinrich IV had died in 1106.

  3. Anselm of Aosta: Sancti Anselmi Opera omnia

  4. Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum; Hollister; Leyser: Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours

  5. The Cartulary of Holy Trinity, Aldgate

  6. Henry of Huntingdon

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ingulph

  9. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  10. Ibid.

  11. Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, 1066–1154

  12. Tyerman says she later recalled being beaten regularly by a terrifying aunt, but she has apparently been confused with her mother.

  13. Corpus Christi College MS. 373

  14. Henry of Huntingdon

  15. Robert of Torigni

  16. Orderic Vitalis

  17. He is sometimes confused with Henry I’s nephew, Henry of Blois, who later became bishop of Winchester.

  18. Orderic Vitalis

  19. Foliot

  20. Robert of Torigni

  21. Annales Patherbrunnenses

  22. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

  23. Robert of Torigni

  24. Leyser: Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours; Hollister; Oorkondenbock van het Sticht Utrecht tot 1302

  25. Robert of Torigni

  26. Truax

  27. Chibnall: The Empress Matilda

  28. Robert of Torigni

 
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