Richard III and the Princes in the Tower by Alison Weir


  Etaples, Treaty of, 1492 236

  Eton College Chapel 18, 167

  Ewelme, Oxon 231

  Exeter, Devon 185, 188, 238

  Fabyan, Robert 6–7, 11, 21, 28, 105, 139, 169, 183

  Ferdinand V, King of Aragon 42, 132, 167, 229, 239, 240, 246

  FitzJames, Richard, Bishop of London 11, 107, 137

  Fleetwood’s Chronicle 25

  Forrest, Miles 140, 142, 158–60

  Forester, John 104, 107

  Fotheringhay Castle, Northants 15, 28, 29, 161

  Fox, Richard, later Bishop of Winchester 182, 244

  Francis II, Duke of Brittany 154, 185, 199

  Frome, Somerset 44

  Fuller, Thomas 229

  Fulman, W. 5

  Gainsborough, Lines 185

  de Genville family 15

  George, Duke of Clarence (see Plantagenet, George)

  George V, King of Great Britain 255

  George of York (see Plantagenet, George)

  Giglis, John de 168

  Gigs, Margaret 174

  Giles, John 68

  Gipping, Suffolk 150, 176

  Gloucester, City of 142, 147–9

  Gloucester, Dukes of (see Thomas of Woodstock; Humphrey of Lancaster; Richard III)

  Gloucester, Earls of 234

  Gould, John 24, 26

  Gower, Sir Thomas 79

  Grafton, Northants 20–1

  Grafton, Richard 11, 20, 115, 160–1

  Gravesend, Kent 186

  Great Chronicle of London, The 7, 11, 28, 31, 49, 105–7, 111–12, 136, 159, 198, 210, 216–18

  Green, John 147–8, 150, 156–7, 160

  Greenwich Palace, Kent 37, 52, 137

  Gregory, John 147

  Grey Friars’ Church, Leicester 217

  Grey, Sir John, of Groby 20

  Grey, Sir Richard 20, 40, 48, 53, 58, 77–81, 85–6, 91–2, 102, 105, 121–3, 164, 194, 212

  Grey, Thomas, Marquess of Dorset 20, 22, 48, 50, 53–5, 58, 61, 64–6, 72–5, 80, 83, 92, 108, 113, 185, 187–9, 196, 205, 228, 233

  Grey de Wilton, Lord 251

  Guildford, Sir Edward 173–5

  Guildford, Sir Henry 174

  Guildford, Jane, Duchess of Northumberland 173

  Guildford, Sir Richard 173–4

  Guildhall, London 7, 91, 121–2

  Guisnes Castle, France 160, 243–5

  Gurney, Giles (see Wigmore, Edward de)

  Hall, Edward 11, 83, 103, 110, 152, 160–1, 183, 206–7, 211, 218, 249

  Hammond, Norman 257

  Hardying, John 11, 160

  Harfleur, France 214

  Harleian MS. 433 126, 137, 173

  Harpsfield, Nicholas 174

  Harrington, Robert 104

  Harrison, Professor R. G. 256

  Haryngton, Sir John 10

  Hastings, Edward 142

  Hastings Hours, The 99

  Hastings, William, Lord 26, 53–5, 58, 61–2, 64–7, 69–70, 72–3, 76, 82, 84–5, 88, 90, 93–109, 113, 115–16, 122–3, 126, 133, 142, 160, 165, 171, 179, 183

  Haute family 185

  Haute, Sir Richard 40, 75, 79, 80–1, 86, 91, 102, 121–3, 164

  Haute, Sir William 20

  Hawes, Stephen 31

  Hearne, Thomas 254

  Henry II, King of England 15, 19, 154

  Henry IV, King of England (Henry of Bolingbroke) 14–15, 125

  Henry V, King of England 14–15, 19–20, 67, 71, 153

  Henry VI, King of England 3, 14–17, 19–21, 24–5, 27–8, 30, 47, 62, 65, 68, 71, 74, 102, 125, 139, 153, 161, 165, 181

  Henry VII, King of England (formerly Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond) 3–11, 16, 59, 152–5, 164, 167–8, 170, 173–4, 180–2, 184–90, 194, 196, 198–9, 202–4, 206, 209–10, 212–17, 219–51

  Henry VIII, King of England 7, 9, 51, 212, 222, 224, 229, 235, 237, 243, 245–6, 249–51

  Herbert, Maud 206

  Herbert, William, Earl of Huntingdon 251

  Herbert, William, Lord 153

  Hinxworth Church, Herts 108

  Holbein, Ambrosius 174

  Holbein the Younger, Hans 175

  Holinshed, Raphael 11, 249

  Hornsey Park, Herts 87

  Howard family 12, 46, 103

  Howard, John, Lord, later 1st Duke of Norfolk 52, 94–6, 99, 102–3, 106, 110–11, 123, 133, 135, 137, 141, 143, 173, 186, 189, 207–9, 216

  Howard, Thomas, 3rd Duke of Norfolk 9–11, 103

  Howard, Thomas, Earl of Arundel 12, 208

  Howard, Sir Thomas, later Earl of Surrey and afterwards 2nd Duke of Norfolk 102–4, 110, 137, 216

  Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester 65, 71, 90, 165

  Ightham Mote, Kent 20, 185

  Isabella, Infanta of Spain 42

  Isabella of Portugal 43

  Isabella, Queen of Castile 42, 154, 167, 229, 240

  Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford 20–2, 25, 38, 124

  James I, King of Great Britain 12, 208, 251

  James III, King of Scotland 53

  James IV, King of Scotland 237

  Jenkins, Elizabeth 257

  Jesus College, Cambridge 40

  John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 14–15, 43, 62, 153, 154

  John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford 20

  John of Gloucester, or of Pontefract 31, 173, 220

  Johnson, Mr 251

  Juan, Infante of Spain 42

  Juana of Portugal 213

  Katherine, natural daughter of Richard III 31

  Katherine of Aragon, Queen of England 208, 229, 235, 239, 246

  Katherine of Valois, Queen of England 153

  Katherine of York (see Plantagenet, Katherine)

  Kendal, John 134, 155

  Kendall, Paul Murray 256

  Kincaid, A. N. 12, 209

  King, Oliver 104

  King’s College, Cambridge 18, 133

  Kingsford, C. L. 6

  King’s Lynn, Norfolk 69

  Kraus, Professor Bertram S. 256

  Krogman, Dr W. M. 256–7

  Lambert, John 54

  Lambeth Palace, London 59, 131

  Lancaster, House of 14–16, 20, 56, 67, 153–4, 180

  Landais, Pierre 199

  Langton, Thomas, Bishop of St David’s and Salisbury 130, 155–6

  Lee, Edward 70

  Lee, Joyeuce 170

  Leicester Cathedral 217

  Leicester, City of 155, 187, 214, 217

  Leigh, Joyeuce (see Lee)

  Leland, John 235

  Leslau, Jack 172–6

  Lewis, Dr 181–2

  Lewis, Dr Arthur 256

  Lichfield, Staffs 214

  Liège Cathedral 235

  Lincoln, City of 186

  Lind, Mrs F. M. 257

  Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence 14–15

  Little Malvern Priory, Worcs 59

  Lluyd, Humphrey 103, 105

  Llywd, Dafydd 167, 218

  Lockey, Rowland 175

  London Chronicles, The 6–7, 116, 169, 182

  London, Bishop of (see FitzJames, Richard)

  London, City of 17–18

  Louix XI, King of France 19, 24, 26–7, 42, 45, 60–1, 129, 132, 168–9

  Lovell, Francis, Viscount 29, 134, 142–3, 216, 231, 234

  Lovell, Sir Thomas 11

  Lucy, Elizabeth 19, 224

  Ludlow Castle, Salop 15, 39–41, 58, 63, 69, 75

  Lyne-Pirkis, Dr Richard 256, 258

  Lynn, Norfolk (see King’s Lynn)

  Lynom, Thomas 107

  Magdalen College, Oxford 142–3

  Magna Carta 105

  Maidstone, Kent 20, 185

  Majerres, Flemish chronicler 34

  Mancini, Dominic xiv, 2–4, 8–9, 17, 19, 22–3, 30, 40, 45, 48, 49, 51, 53–7, 59–61, 63–6, 68–71, 73–83, 87, 89–93, 95, 97–9, 101–17, 123, 125–7, 129–30, 135–7, 139–40, 142, 166, 169, 184, 191–2

  Marche, Olivier de la 49

  Margaret of An
jou, Queen of England 14–17, 19–20, 24–7, 45, 134

  Margaret of Austria 60

  Margaret of Clarence (see Plantagenet, Margaret)

  Margaret of York (see Plantagenet, Margaret)

  Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy (see Plantagenet, Margaret)

  Markham, Sir Clements 173

  Marshal family 15

  Mary, Duchess of Burgundy 43, 60

  Mary of York (see Plantagenet, Mary)

  Mary I, Queen of England 250

  Maximilian, Duke of Burgundy, Archduke of Austria, later Holy Roman Emperor 43, 60, 236–7, 241, 244

  Meno, Pregent 242

  Middleham Castle, Yorks 29, 34–5, 50, 56, 66, 69, 71, 85, 97, 133, 151, 155, 168, 185, 197, 200

  Middleton, Norfolk 69

  Milan, Duke of 42

  Milford Haven, Wales 214

  Millyng, Thomas, Abbot of Westminster 24–6

  Minoresses’ Convent, Aldgate 170, 245

  Minoresses’ Convent, Stepney 52

  Minster Lovell, Oxon 143–4, 148, 231, 234

  Mistlebrook, William 62

  Molinet, Jean 49, 59, 82, 108, 149, 159, 171, 205, 251

  Molleson, Dr Theya 257

  Monstrelet, Enguerrand de 20

  Montgomery, Anne 170

  Montgomery, Thomas 170

  More, Lady Alice 174

  More, Sir John 9–10, 62, 121

  More, Sir Thomas 2–4, 7–12, 18, 21, 28–9, 32–3, 41, 50, 54–5, 62, 66, 69–70, 76–82, 84–5, 90, 94–5, 99, 101–5, 110, 114, 116, 121, 123, 128–9, 135, 140, 142, 147–52, 156–61, 169–71, 174–5, 178–9, 198, 211, 218, 223–4, 245–9, 252, 255–6, 258

  Morley, Lord 173

  Mortimer, Anne 15

  Mortimer, Edmund 14–15

  Mortimer family 15

  Morton, John, Bishop of Ely, later Cardinal Archbishop of Canterbury 10, 64, 88, 97, 99, 101–4, 106–7, 149, 151–2, 172, 179–80, 182, 187–9, 199, 220, 228

  Mote, The, Kent 20, 185

  Mowbray, Anne, Duchess of Norfolk and York 46, 52, 135, 257–8

  Mowbray, Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk (see Talbot, Elizabeth)

  Mowbray, John, 4th Duke of Norfolk 46

  Moyle, Sir Thomas 176–7

  Musgrove Dr J. H. 257–8

  Myers, Professor A. R. 256

  Nancy, Battle of, 1477 43

  Nanfan, Sir Richard 244

  National Portrait Gallery, London 32

  Nesfield, John 145, 196

  Neve, William 23

  Neville, Anne, Queen of England 5, 23–4, 29, 33–5, 54, 56, 97, 113, 130–1, 133, 136–7, 142, 150, 155, 168, 185, 196–7, 200–12

  Neville, Cecily, Duchess of York 15, 22, 24–5, 28–9, 35, 49–50, 117, 122, 126, 137

  Neville, family 5, 24, 34–5, 43

  Neville, George, Archbishop of York 34

  Neville, Isabella, Duchess of Clarence 23–4, 29, 33, 42–5, 49

  Neville, Katherine, Lady Hastings 54, 142

  Neville, Lord 102

  Neville, Ralph, 1st Earl of Westmorland 15

  Neville, Richard, Earl of Salisbury 16–17

  Neville, Richard, Earl of Warwick, ‘the Kingmaker’ 16, 19, 22–5, 29–30, 33–5, 44, 49, 61, 68, 117

  Norfolk, Dowager Duchess of 22

  Norfolk, Duchess of (see Talbot, Elizabeth)

  Norfolk, Dukes of (see Mowbray, John; Howard, John; Plantagenet, Richard)

  Northampton 76–9, 81, 85

  Northampton, Battle of, 1460 67

  Northumberland, Earl of (see Percy, Henry)

  Nostell Priory, Wakefield, Yorks 175

  Nottingham 72, 75–6, 155

  Nottingham Castle 133, 196–7, 214

  Osbeck (see Warbeck)

  Oxford, City of 142, 231

  Oxford, Earl of (see de Vere, John)

  Oxford, University of 107, 133

  Parron, William 168

  Pasche, William 133

  Paston Letters, The 2, 35

  Pavia, Battle of, 1525 244

  Payntour, John 31

  Peck, F. 176

  Pembroke Castle, Wales 153

  Percy, Henry, Earl of Northumberland 94, 102, 108, 122–3, 133, 157, 186, 189, 215–16

  Percy, Sir Robert 134

  Persivall, Humphrey 72, 75

  Philip of Hapsburg, Duke of Burgundy 60

  Pilkington, Charles 104

  Pimpe, Anne 173

  Pimpe, John 173

  Plantagenet, Anne, daughter of Edward IV 41, 206

  Plantagenet, Anne, sister of Edward IV and Richard III 185

  Plantagenet, Bridget, daughter of Edward IV 41, 206

  Plantagenet, Cecily, daughter of Edward IV, later Viscountess Welles 23, 53, 206

  Plantagenet dynasty 14, 217, 222

  Plantagenet, Edmund, Earl of Rutland 17, 29, 161

  Plantagenet, Edward, Earl of Warwick 42, 47, 50, 113, 114, 125, 150, 185, 199–200, 219–220, 222, 231–4, 236, 238–9, 246–7, 250

  Plantagenet, Elizabeth, Duchess of Suffolk 137, 243

  Plantagenet, Elizabeth, Queen of England (see Elizabeth of York)

  Plantagenet, Geoffrey, Count of Anjou 15

  Plantagenet, George, Duke of Clarence 22–6, 29–31, 33–6, 39, 42–51, 54, 68–9, 74, 83, 113–14, 117, 121–2, 125, 153, 159, 165, 200, 233, 236, 250

  Plantagenet, George, son of Edward IV 41

  Plantagenet, Katherine, daughter of Edward IV, later Countess of Devon 41, 206, 244

  Plantagenet, Margaret, Countess of Salisbury 42, 49–50, 200, 250–1

  Plantagenet, Margaret, daughter of Edward IV 41

  Plantagenet, Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy 23, 226, 232, 234–6, 241–2

  Plantagenet, Mary, daughter of Edward IV 23, 52–3

  Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of Gloucester (see Richard III) Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of York (d.1460) 15–17, 28–9, 31, 53, 116, 117, 125, 161

  Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of York (d.1483) 41, 46, 52, 59, 64, 83, 94, 109–14, 114, 135, 140–1, 170–1, 174–5, 177–8, 232, 236, 239–42 (see also under ‘Princes in the Tower, The’)

  Plantagenet, Richard, of Eastwell, Kent 31, 176–7

  Plantagenet, Richard, son of Clarence 42

  Plymouth, Devon 188

  Pole, Henry, Lord Montagu 250

  Pole, Henry, son of Montagu 250–1

  Pole, Margaret, Countess of Salisbury (see Plantagenet, Margaret)

  Pole, Reginald, Cardinal 250

  de la Pole, Edmund, Earl of Suffolk, 244, 247

  de la Pole, John, Duke of Suffolk 137, 243

  de la Pole, John, Earl of Lincoln 69, 137, 142, 173, 200, 222, 231–2, 234–5, 243

  de la Pole, Richard 244

  de la Pole, William 244

  Pontefract Castle, Yorks 85, 108, 121–3, 155

  Poppelau, Nicholas von 31–2, 129

  Portugal, King of 154

  Potter, Jeremy 173

  Pottyer, Richard 62

  Poynings, Sir Edward 237–8

  Princes in the Tower, The: declared bastards 124–7; moved to secure apartments in Tower 111–12, 114, 139–42, 172; cease to appear 112, 138–40; attendants in Tower 140, 142; potential focus for rebellion 142–3, 162, 164, 172, 184; murder of xiv, 95, 149, 157–9, 191, 205, 218, 243–7, 252; date of murder 135, 139, 149, 157, 171; burial 159; alleged reburial 160–1; believed murdered 139, 144, 162, 166, 183, 184, 191–2, 198–9, 225–6, 227–8; controversy and speculation over their fate 163–78, 226–7, 231, 235–6; chroniclers’ views on 1–13; search for bodies of 225–6, 247, 249; bones, not theirs, found in Tower 251; bones, probably theirs, found in Tower 113, 252–4; bones buried in Westminster Abbey 254; bones examined 255–8; also mentioned xiii, 1, 9, 11, 58, 163, 190, 193, 195, 204, 216, 225, 233, 251 (see also under Edward V, King of England and Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of York and Norfolk)

  Queen’s College, Cambridge 23

  Rae, Dr John 61

  Raleigh, Sir Walter 251

  Rastell, John 159–60, 225
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  Rastell, William 11

  Ratcliffe, Sir Richard 78, 102, 108, 122–3, 151, 156, 211–12, 216

  Rawcliffe, Carol 179

  Reading Abbey, Berks 19

  Reading, Berks 142

  Redmore Plain, Leics 214–15

  Rennes Cathedral, Brittany 190

  Richard, Duke of York (see Plantagenet, Richard)

  Richard II, King of England 14–15, 89, 139, 165

  Richard III, King of England (formerly Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester): birth 28–9; childhood 29; created Duke of Gloucester 29; honours and appointments 29, 48, 56; possible involvement in death of Edward of Lancaster 26, 30; involved in murder of Henry VI 27–8, 30; character 30, 128–33, 165, 218; military career 30, 55–6, 90; bastards 31, 130, 173, 177, 200, 220, 241–2; appearance 3, 31–3, 116; alleged deformities 31–3, 104, 171; negotiates to marry Anne Neville 24, 33–4; relations with Clarence 33–4, 43; marries Anne Neville 34; relations with Anne Neville 34–5; northern affiliations 2, 93; inherits Warwick’s lands 33–6, 43; swears allegiance to future Edward V 39; involvement in Clarence’s downfall 48; reaction to Clarence’s death 50–1; relations with and attitude to the Wydvilles 51, 55, 58, 62, 66; relations with Hastings 54, 66; loyalty to Edward IV 55, 90, 128–9, 218; Lord of the North 55–7, 58; relations with City of York 56–7, 155, 216; named Protector of the Realm by Edward IV 63, 71; protectorship opposed by the Wydvilles 64–5, 70, 73, 74–5; informed of Edward IV’s death 66, 69; fear of Wydvilles 69–70; plans coup against the Wydvilles with Buckingham 70–2, 75–7; plots to usurp throne 70, 78, 82, 84, 91–3, 95–9, 101–2, 105–7, 111–27; professes loyalty to Edward V 71, 79–82, 85, 88, 90, 134, 171; mourns Edward IV 71; powers as protector limited by Council 74–5, 78; effects coup against Wydvilles 78–9, 84–8; gains contol of Edward V 79–82; moral propaganda of 79, 106, 130; seeks popularity and goodwill of people 82, 102, 143, 156, 189–90, 193; enters London with Edward V 87–8; proclaimed Protector of the Realm 89–90; as Protector 94–127; plans and accomplishes elimination of the Wydvilles and other opponents 91–3, 102, 106, 111; moves against Hastings 97–8, 100–7; plots for and gains control of York 98, 109–11, 171–2; imprisons Princes in Tower 111–13; contemplates and plots death of Princes 113, 147–52, 156–8, 171–2; title to throne 124–6; usurpation of throne 126–8, 133, 192, 224; accession ceremonies 128; piety 130–2; books owned by 131, 133; court of 132–3; architectural interests and works 133; interest in chivalry and heraldry 133; interest in music 133; patron of scholars 123; unpopularity 128, 133, 136, 143, 198–9, 211; dependence on magnates 133–6, 140, 143, 186, 189; coronation 136–7; progress 138, 142–3, 147–51, 155–7, 185, 189; alienates Buckingham 148, 151, 180; as king 155–6, 192–3, 220; promotion of northerners 134, 140–1, 214; conspiracies against him, 1483 11, 143–7, 149, 155, 170–90; guilty of murder of Princes: arguments for and against 163–78, 184, 197–8, 225–8, 246, 258; rewards Princes’ murderers 160; allegedly orders reburial of Princes 160–1; spreads rumours of Princes’ deaths 161–2; perhaps informs Buckingham of Princes’ murder 179; effect of murder of Princes on his security and reputation 183–7, 191, 193, 198–9, 217–18, 227, 247; insecure as king 189–90, 199, 205, 211; only Parliament of 192–3; compels Elizabeth Wydville to release her daughters from sanctuary 194–6, 232; grief over son’s death 197–8; chooses successor 200–1, 222; establishes Council of the North 200; plans to marry Elizabeth of York 202–13, 223; callous treatment of Anne Neville 206–7; possible involvement in death of Anne Neville 5, 210–11; conspiracy to overthrow him, 1485 7, 11, 213–14; takes up arms against Henry Tudor 214–15; killed at Battle of Bosworth 215–16; treatment of corpse 216–17; burial and tomb 217; posthumously attainted 224–5; chroniclers’ views on 1–13, 217–18, 249; controversy about xiii, 1–13; revisionist view of xiv, 11–12; also mentioned 2, 3, 22, 24, 29, 62, 85, 91, 142, 144, 173, 196–7, 200–1, 219, 229, 232, 236, 240, 243, 244, 252, 257–8

 
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