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  Abbreviations used in this section:

  Bernard The King’s Reformation

  Ives The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn, “The Most Happy”

  LP Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII

  SC Spanish Calendar: Calendar of Letters, Despatches and State Papers relating to Negotiations between England and Spain

  VC Venetian Calendar: Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs preserved in the Archives of Venice and in the other Libraries of Northern Italy

  Warnicke The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn

  Full titles of all works are listed in the Bibliography.


  1 Hall; VC; LP

  2 Henry’s skeleton, discovered in St. George’s Chapel in the early nineteenth century, measured 6′2″ in length. This should be compared with his armor in the Tower of London, which would fit a man of 6′4″. Strands of red hair adhered to the King’s skull. His armor measurements show that in 1534 his waist measured 37 inches and his chest 45 inches.

  3 VC

  4 SC; LP; Brantome; VC; Carles; George Wyatt; Sanuto

  5 Carles; LP

  6 Carles; Wriothesley; Constantine

  7 Carles

  8 Hall

  9 Hall; Wriothesley


  1 Wriothesley. Although Hall dates Anne’s miscarriage to early February, Wriothesley, who was better informed, states that it occurred “three days before Candlemas.” As Candlemas falls on February 2, this suggests that the miscarriage happened on January 30. However, Wriothesley cannot have been correct in this case, for the Imperial ambassador, Eustache Chapuys, who had been at court at the time, reported on February 10 that “on the day of the interment” of Katherine of Aragon (29 January), “the Concubine had an abortion.” Warnicke is therefore incorrect in dating the miscarriage to January 19, then January 30.

  2 George Wyatt; LP

  3 Wriothesley; Hall. For Anne Boleyn’s miscarriage, see also George Wyatt and Clifford.

  4 LP

  5 Ibid

  6 Neale: Queen Elizabeth I

  7 Pollini

  8 Hall

  9 For Katherine of Aragon, see Mattingly; Weir: Six Wives; Fraser; Starkey: Six Wives; Paul; Luke; Hume and Strickland.

  10 Ives

  11 SC

  12 Ibid

  13 For Henry’s pursuit of Anne Boleyn, see, for example, George Wyatt; LP; SC and Cavendish: Wolsey. Henry VIII’s seventeen surviving love letters to her are in the Vatican Library, and have been printed in several editions.

  14 Cavendish: Metrical Visions

  15 Smith: Henry VIII; Bernard

  16 Bernard; National Archives: SPI/46; Pocock

  17 Erickson: First Elizabeth

  18 Loades: Mary Tudor

  19 SC. It has been claimed recently that the Nidd Hall portrait of Anne Boleyn is based on Holbein’s portrait of Jane Seymour, but there are significant differences, not least the AB brooch worn by the sitter, and the image is entirely compatible with Anne’s verified portraits.

  20 LP

  21 SC

  22 Cavendish: Metrical Visions

  23 The evidence for Henry’s growing disillusionment with Anne Boleyn is to be found in SC; GW and Roper.

  24 Rotuli Parliamentorum

  25 VC

  26 Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris

  27 SC

  28 Ibid

  29 SC; LP; Fraser

  30 LP

  31 LP; Denny: Anne Boleyn

  32 LP

  33 Aless

  34 LP

  35 SC; Latymer. Latymer, Anne’s chaplain, identifies her as Mary Shelton, who married Sir Anthony Heveningham in 1546, and who is the subject of a portrait sketch by Hans Holbein.

  36 SC; LP

  37 Roper

  38 Wriothesley. For Henry VIII’s courtship of Jane Seymour, see SC and Clifford.

  39 LP

  40 SC

  41 For Jane Seymour’s life, see Gross.

  42 SC. Jane’s portraits by Holbein and other artists bear this out.

  43 Clifford

  44 Warnicke: “Fall”

  45 LP

  46 SC

  47 LP

  48 Ibid

  49 Ibid

  50 Foxe

  51 LP

  52 Ibid

  53 Hall

  54 Vergil

  55 SC

  56 LP

  57 Prescott; Williams: Henry VIII and His Court

  58 Loades: Mary Tudor

  59 Carles

  60 LP

  61 Ibid

  62 Ibid

  63 Ibid

  64 Ibid

  65 Ibid

  66 Wriothesley; cf Il Successo de la Morte della Regina, an Italian poem of June 2, 1536, written in London, which also asserts that the shock “caused her to give premature birth to a dead son.” Warnicke’s theory that Anne miscarried on January 19 does not take account of the fact that the King’s accident occurred on the twenty-fourth January.

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