Elizabeth of York: A Tudor Queen and Her World by Alison Weir

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  André “Vita Henrici VII”

  Arrivall Historie of the Arrivall of King Edward IV in England

  CSP Milan Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts existing in the Archives and Collections of Milan

  CSP Spain Calendar of Letters, Dispatches, and State Papers relating to Negotiations between England and Spain

  CSP Venice Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs preserved in the Archives of Venice

  HVIIPPE Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VII, in The Antiquarian Repertory

  Leland: Collectanea Leland, John: Antiquarii de Rebus Brittanicis Collectanea

  PPE Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York

  Strickland Lives of the Queens of England


  1. Holinshed


  1. I have adoped this spelling rather than the more commonly used and anachronistic Woodville, which is not contemporary. The name is spelled Wydeville on Elizabeth’s coffin plate, and it is the way she signed her name. In contemporary sources it is given variously as Wydvil, Wydvile, Wydevile, or Widville.

  2. William Monypenny, Louis IX’s agent in Scotland, cited Scofield in Life and Reign

  3. CSP Milan

  4. Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland

  5. CSP Milan

  6. Vergil

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Mancini

  10. Commines

  11. “Gregory’s Chronicle”

  12. Vergil

  13. More

  14. Hall

  15. More

  16. Ashdown-Hill: Eleanor, the Secret Queen suggests that her portraits show her with dark hair, but in the majority she is clearly blond.

  17. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies

  18. Mancini. For a discussion of this story, see Chapter 1.

  19. Waurin

  20. Worcester

  21. Shears

  22. Fabyan


  1. Much of the medieval palace, including the apartments where Elizabeth of York was born, was reduced to ruins in a devastating fire in 1512, and most of what was left was lost during a second conflagration in 1834. Only Westminster Hall, the crypt of St. Stephen’s Chapel, and the Jewel Tower escaped unscathed. The Palace of Westminster, incorporating the Houses of Parliament, now occupies the site where the medieval palace once stood.

  2. Fabyan. The date is confirmed in Elizabeth’s tomb inscription in Westminster Abbey.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ibid.; Jenkins

  5. Calendar of Papal Registers

  6. Tetzel

  7. Ibid.

  8. Daughter of Sir Richard Berners and wife of John Bourchier, Lord Berners, Constable of Windsor Castle.

  9. A Relation, or rather a True Account, of the Island of England

  10. Tetzel

  11. A Relation, or rather a True Account, of the Island of England

  12. Mancini

  13. A Relation, or rather a True Account, of the Island of England

  14. Patronage, the Crown and the Provinces in Later Medieval England

  15. Mancini

  16. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  17. Mancini

  18. CSP Milan

  19. Mancini

  20. Paston Letters

  21. Monstrelet

  22. Ibid.

  23. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III and Henry VII

  24. Paston Letters

  25. When Mary’s coffin was opened in 1810, when a vault was being constructed for the family of George III, her unembalmed body was found to be well-preserved, with long, pale blond hair and blue eyes, which were open, but quickly disintegrated when exposed to the air. Observers could see that she had been beautiful in life.

  26. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Edward IV, 1467–77; Wardrobe Accounts of Edward the Fourth, in PPE

  27. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Edward IV, 1467–77

  28. Calendar of Close Rolls: Edward IV; Foedera; Exchequer Records: Issue Rolls E.403

  29. A Relation, or rather a True Account, of the Island of England

  30. Cited Brigden. These words were written by Edmund Dudley, who would become one of the foremost advisers to Elizabeth’s future husband.

  31. Civil and Uncivil Life, tract of 1579, cited Scott: Every One a Witness: The Tudor Age

  32. Dowsing; Hedley; Cloake: Palaces and Parks of Richmond and Kew and Richmond Palace

  33. Collection of Ordinances; The Babees’ Book

  34. Green

  35. Harris

  36. Collection of Ordinances; The Babees’ Book; Manners and Meals in Olden Time; Woolgar

  37. The Plumpton Correspondence

  38. Brigden

  39. Cited Brigden

  40. Collection of Ordinances

  41. Paston Letters

  42. CSP Milan

  43. Great Chronicle of London

  44. Croyland Chronicle

  45. Ibid.

  46. Mancini

  47. Jones: Psychology of a Battle: Bosworth, 1485

  48. When Katherine Parr interceded with Henry VIII to spare the life of her adulterous sister-in-law, he would not do so unless her husband relented.

  49. CSP Milan

  50. Mancini

  51. Ibid.

  52. Paston Letters

  53. Wills from Doctors’ Commons

  54. Okerlund: Elizabeth Wydeville; Okerlund: Elizabeth of York

  55. Harrod

  56. Weightman

  57. Croyland Chronicle; Charter Rolls C.53/105

  58. Warkworth

  59. Geoffrey Richardson

  60. PPE

  61. The Manner and Guiding of the Earl of Warwick at Angers in July and August 1470, from the Harleian MS. 433, in Original Letters Illustrative of English History

  62. John Neville was to be killed at Barnet in 1471. George Neville could not afford to support his dukedom of Bedford, and was deprived of it in January 1478. He died unmarried in 1483 and was buried in Sheriff Hutton Church, Yorkshire.

  63. Hicks: Anne Neville

  64. Warkworth

  65. Ibid.; Fabyan

  66. Hall

  67. Paston Letters

  68. Sharpe, citing records of the
Court of Common Council of the City of London in the Guildhall archives.

  69. Paston Letters

  70. The Politics of Fifteenth-Century England; Scofield: “Elizabeth Wydeville in the Sanctuary at Westminster”

  71. Hall

  72. Warkworth

  73. These details are recorded in a letter written by Edward IV to the Lord Privy Seal in 1473; Additional MS. 4614, f. 222

  74. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Edward IV

  75. Croyland Chronicle

  76. Commines

  77. Croyland Chronicle

  78. Arrivall

  79. Recovery of the Throne, Royal MSS.; Political Poems and Songs

  80. Arrivall

  81. Ibid.

  82. Political Poems and Songs

  83. Foedera

  84. Arrivall

  85. Ibid.

  86. Ibid.

  87. Hall, corroborated by the illustrated version of the Arrivall, dating from 1471.

  88. Croyland Chronicle

  89. Ibid.

  90. Mancini

  91. Arrivall

  92. Croyland Chronicle

  93. Holinshed

  94. He hastened to make peace with Edward IV, but in September was arrested and beheaded.

  95. Croyland Chronicle

  96. Warkworth

  97. Arrivall

  98. Warkworth

  99. Archaeologia

  100. CSP Milan

  101. Great Chronicle of London

  102. Croyland Chronicle

  103. Cotton MS. Julius B, XII, 317; Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies

  104. Rotuli Parliamentorum

  105. Vergil

  106. André


  1. Mancini

  2. Commines

  3. Mancini

  4. Croyland Chronicle

  5. More

  6. Ibid.

  7. Mancini

  8. CSP Milan

  9. Mancini

  10. Ibid.

  11. Calendar of Patent Rolls: Edward IV, 1467–77


  13. Cotton MSS. Vespasian, f. XIII

  14. Pietro Carmeliano, cited in Anglo: Spectacle, Pageantry and Early Tudor Policy

  15. An example is in Cotton MSS. Vespasian, f. III, p. 15, and probably comes from a book Cecily owned.

  16. CSP Spain

  17. CSP Venice; CSP Milan

  18. Collection of Ordinances

  19. In 1477 priests holding fellowships at Queens’ College, Cambridge, were instructed to offer daily prayers for “our sovereign lady, Queen Elizabeth, foundress of the College, the Prince, and all the King’s childer.” The college was founded by Andrew Dockett, a local rector, in 1446. Margaret of Anjou had become its patron in 1448.

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